This paper proposes a dielectric slabs-based lens for millimeter-wave beamforming systems. The proposed lens is based on the graded steps of the effective refractive index of the semi-spherical lens. It consists of multiple dielectric slabs that match the selected gradient effective refractive index. These slabs have the same thicknesses and different radii. The slab thickness in this lens should not exceed a quarter of the operating wavelength to keep on a similar effective refractive index of the original semi-spherical lens. A horn antenna is used to examine the performance of the designed lens at 28 GHz frequency in terms of the maximum gain, sidelobe level, and 3 dB beamwidth. Sixteen switchable horn antennas are used to demonstrate lens capability for millimeter-wave beamforming. Every single antenna element is selected individually, thus the dielectric lens steers and enhances the corresponding radiation of the selected element in the desired direction.
This paper presents a dual-band 1 × 4 antipodal Vivaldi antenna (AVA) array with high gain to operate over a dual-frequency band that covers the 5G frequency spectrum. The gain is enhanced by employing a dielectric lens (DL). The AVA array consists of four radiating patch elements, corrugations, DL, and array feeding network on the top side. The bottom side contains four radiating patches which are the mirror images of top radiating patches. The designed AVA contains 1 × 4 array antenna elements with a DL that is operating in the ranges of 24.59–24.98 and 27.06–29 GHz. The dimensions of the designed antenna are 97.2 mm × 71.2 mm × 0.8 mm. For the improvement in gain and impedance matching at the dual-band frequency, corrugation and feeding network techniques are used. The gain obtained is about 8–12 dBi. AVA array is tested after fabrication and the measured results are reliable with the simulation results.
The global spread of 5th generation (5G) wireless systems causes some concern about health effects of millimeter waves (MMW). To investigate biological effects of local exposure to 5G-MMW on human body, a novel 60 GHz band exposure setup was developed, and its performance was validated. A spatial synthetic beam-type exposure setup using two dielectric lens antennas was proposed to achieve high intensity 60 GHz irradiation to the target area of human skin. Variety distributions and intensities of electromagnetic fields at the exposed area, which is modified by incident angles of the combined beams, were simulated using finite-difference time-domain methods. The exposure performance we estimated was verified by temperature elevations of surface in a physical arm-shaped silicone phantom during the MMW exposure. The interference fringes generated in the exposed area due to the combined two-directional beam radiations were observed both in the simulation and in the phantom experiment but eliminated by applying an orthogonalizing polarized feeding structure. Under these exposure conditions, the local temperature changes, which could evoke warmth sensations, were obtained at the target area of the human forearm skin, which means the achievement of exposure performance we intended.
In order to increase the gain of an end-fire antenna array and improve its broadband characteristics, techniques using a dielectric lens and defected ground structure have been investigated in this paper. The element of the array was constructed using an antipodal tapered slot, and two pairs of U-slots were symmetrically cut on the edges of the two antipodal fins to obtain better performance regarding impedance and radiation in the wider band. While loading an ellipse dielectric lens onto each element, the direction and gain were enhanced at the higher frequency. Meanwhile, a defected ground structure was added on the ground plane to decline the mutual coupling of adjacent radiation arms. This design method was verified by a four-element array and a four-way Wilkinson power divider was used as a feed network. Finally, a fabricated sample was tested. Experimental results showed the designed array was available.