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Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 326
Halimatuddahliana Nasution ◽  
Esam Bashir Yahya ◽  
H. P. S. Abdul Khalil ◽  
Marwan Abdulhakim Shaah ◽  
A. B. Suriani ◽  

Cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) are the most advanced bio-nanomaterial utilized in various applications due to their unique physical and structural properties, renewability, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. It has been isolated from diverse sources including plants as well as textile wastes using different isolation techniques, such as acid hydrolysis, high-intensity ultrasonication, and steam explosion process. Here, we planned to extract and isolate CNFs from carpet wastes using a supercritical carbon dioxide (Sc.CO2) treatment approach. The mechanism of defibrillation and defragmentation caused by Sc.CO2 treatment was also explained. The morphological analysis of bleached fibers showed that Sc.CO2 treatment induced several longitudinal fractions along with each fiber due to the supercritical condition of temperature and pressure. Such conditions removed th fiber’s impurities and produced more fragile fibers compared to untreated samples. The particle size analysis and Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEM) confirm the effect of Sc.CO2 treatment. The average fiber length and diameter of Sc.CO2 treated CNFs were 53.72 and 7.14 nm, respectively. In comparison, untreated samples had longer fiber length and diameter (302.87 and 97.93 nm). The Sc.CO2-treated CNFs also had significantly higher thermal stability by more than 27% and zeta potential value of −38.9± 5.1 mV, compared to untreated CNFs (−33.1 ± 3.0 mV). The vibrational band frequency and chemical composition analysis data confirm the presence of cellulose function groups without any contamination with lignin and hemicellulose. The Sc.CO2 treatment method is a green approach for enhancing the isolation yield of CNFs from carpet wastes and produce better quality nanocellulose for advanced applications.

Lei Zheng ◽  
Lichuan Jin ◽  
Tianlong Wen ◽  
Yulong Liao ◽  
Xiaoli Tang ◽  

Abstract With the advent of the post-Moore era, researches on beyond-Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) approaches have been attracted more and more attention. Magnonics, or spin wave is one of the most promising technology beyond CMOS, which magnons-quanta for spin waves-process the information analogous to electronic charges in electronics. Information transmission by spin waves, which uses the frequency, amplitude and (or) phase to encode information, has a great many of advantages such as extremely low energy loss and wide-band frequency. Moreover, using the nonlinear characteristics of spin waves for information transmission can increase the extra degree of freedom of information. This review provides a tutorial overview over the effects of spin wave propagation and recent research progress in uniform spin wave waveguide. The propagation characteristics of spin waves in uniform waveguides and some special propagation phenomena such as spin wave beam splitting and self-focusing are described by combining experimental phenomena and theoretical formulas. Furthermore, we summarize methods for modulating propagation of spin wave in uniform waveguide, and comment on the advantages and limitations of these methods. The review may promote the development of information transmission technology based on spin waves.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Suwun Suwunnarat ◽  
Yaqian Tang ◽  
Mattis Reisner ◽  
Fabrice Mortessagne ◽  
Ulrich Kuhl ◽  

AbstractCoherent perfect absorption is one of the possibilities to get high absorption but typically suffers from being a resonant phenomena, i.e., efficient absorption only in a local frequency range. Additionally, if applied in high power applications, the understanding of the interplay of non-linearities and coherent perfect absorption is crucial. Here we show experimentally and theoretically the formation of non-linear coherent perfect absorption in the proximity of exceptional point degeneracies of the zeros of the scattering function. Using a microwave platform, consisting of a lossy nonlinear resonator coupled to two interrogating antennas, we show that a coherent incident excitation can trigger a self-induced perfect absorption once its intensity exceeds a critical value. Note, that a (near) perfect absorption persists for a broad-band frequency range around the nonlinear coherent perfect absorption condition. Its origin is traced to a quartic behavior that the absorbance spectrum acquires in the proximity of the exceptional points of the nonlinear scattering operator.

2022 ◽  
pp. 152808372110620
Mukesh Kumar Singh ◽  
Gaurav Saraswat ◽  
Samrat Mukhopadhyay ◽  
Himangshu B Baskey

Electromagnetic shielding (EMS) has become the necessity of the present era due to enormous expansion in electronic devices accountable to emit electromagnetic radiation. The principal target of this paper is to originate three-dimensional (3D) orthogonal fabrics with conductive hybrid weft yarn and to determine their electromagnetic shielding. DREF-III core-spun yarn using copper filament in the core and polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) fiber on the sheath and fabric constructed of such yarn has a promising electromagnetic shielding characteristic. Box–Behnken experimental design has been employed to prepare various samples to investigate the electromagnetic shielding efficiency of 3D orthogonal woven structures. The orthogonal fabric samples were tested in an electromagnetic Ku frequency band using free space measurement system (FSMS) to estimate absorbance, reflectance, transmittance, and electromagnetic shielding. The increase in copper core filament diameter and hybrid yarn linear density enhances the EMS of orthogonal fabric. Statistical analysis has been done to bring out the effect and interaction of various yarn and fabric variables on EMS. Metal filament diameter, orientation, sheath fibers percentage, and fabric constructional parameters significantly affected electromagnetic shielding efficiency. The inferences of this study can be applied in other 3D structures like angle interlock, spacer fabrics for curtains, and coverings for civilians and military applications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 60-67
Sarah Yasmin Mohamad ◽  
Noralya Fatin Muzamil ◽  
Norun Farihah Abdul Malek ◽  
S.M.A Motakabber ◽  
Rafidah Abd Malik ◽  

In this paper, a microstrip patch antenna is designed to be used for X-band VSAT application at 7.5 GHz. The antenna is proposed to replace the massive and commonly used parabolic reflector antennas (46.0 inch × 29.3 inch × 13.5 inch (116.84 cm × 74.42 cm × 34.29 cm) with weight of 66.2 kg) in terms of portability due to its compact and lightweight features, with overall dimensions of 19.00 mm × 30.55 mm. The 7.5 GHz frequency is chosen based on the X-band frequency used in Malaysia, as reported by STRIDE. The microstrip patch antenna is first designed and simulated using CST Microwave Studio (CST MWS) and exhibits a good return loss (S11) of -42.09 dB, a bandwidth of 399 MHz, directivity of 7.63 dB and gain of 7.18 dB. The antenna is then fabricated using RT/duroid ® High Frequency 5880 substrate with a dielectric constant of ?r = 2.2, loss tangent of ? = 0.0009 and thickness of t = 1.574 mm. Next, the return loss and radiation pattern measurements are carried out to confirm the simulated results. The measurement of the antenna prototype provides a return loss S11 of -30.53 dB, bandwidth of 455 MHz, directivity of 5.51 dB and gain of 3.88 dB. ABSTRAK: Di dalam kajian ini, antena jalurmikro dicadangkan untuk tujuan aplikasi jalur-X VSAT pada 7.5 GHz. Antena jalurmikro ini dicadangkan untuk menggantikan antena reflektor parabola yang besar dan biasa digunakan (46.0 inci × 29.3 inci × 13.5 inci (116.84cm × 74.42cm × 34.29cm) dengan berat 66.2kg), kerana cirinya yang mudah alih dengan fizikalnya yang kecil dan ringan, dan dimensi keseluruhan 19.00 mm × 30.55 mm. Frekuensi 7.5 GHz dipilih berdasarkan frekuensi jalur-X yang digunakan di Malaysia, seperti yang dilaporkan oleh STRIDE. Antena jalurmikro ini direka dan disimulasi menggunakan perisian CST Studio Gelombang Mikro (CST MWS) dan menghasilkan kehilangan pulangan yang baik S11 -42.09 dB, lebar jalur 399 MHz, keterarahan 7.63 dB dan gandaan 7.18 dB. Antena jalurmikro ini kemudiannya direalisasikan dengan menggunakan substrat RT / duroid ® Frekuensi Tinggi 5880 dengan pemalar dielektrik ?r = 2.2, tangen kehilangan ? = 0.0009 dan ketebalan t = 1.574 mm. Seterusnya, pengukuran kehilangan pulangan dan corak radiasi dilakukan untuk mengesahkan keputusan simulasi. Pengukuran prototaip antena jalurmikro menunjukkan kehilangan pulangan S11 -30.53 dB, lebar jalur 455 MHz, keterarahan 5.51 dB dan gandaan 3.88 dB.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 16-28
Ambati. Navya ◽  
Govardhani. Immadi ◽  
Madhavareddy. Venkata Narayana

<abstract> <p>The proposed reconfigurable BPF satisfies the International Telecommunication Unionos (ITU) region 3 spectrum requirement. In transmit mode, the frequency range 11.41-12.92 GHz is used by the direct broadcast service (DBS) and the fixed satellite service (FSS). Direct broadcast service (DBS) in reception mode employs 11.7-12.2 GHz and 17.3-17.8 GHz frequency ranges. Frequency reconfigurable filters are popular because they can cover wide range of frequencies, reducing system cost and space. Another emerging trend is electronic component flexibility or conformability, which allows them to be mounted on non-planar objects and are used in wearable applications. This project contains a frequency-reconfigurable BPF that has been entirely printed on a flexible polimide substrate. Frequency reconfigurability is obtained by using a pin diode HSCH 5318 and it is used to switch between 12 GHz and 18 GHz. The prototype reconfigurable BPF is highly compact and low-cost due to the flexible polimide substrate and the measured results are promising and match the simulated results well.</p> </abstract>

Huda Ibrahim Hamd ◽  
Israa Hazem Ali ◽  
Ahmed Mohammed Ahmed

Due to the tremendous development in the field of wireless communication and its use in several fields, whether military or commercial was proposed. A novel tapered slot Vivaldi antenna is designed and simulated at double band frequency (Ku-band) using computer simulation technology (CST) software 2020. The dimensions of the antenna are 2.3 × 1 × 0.4 mm<sup>3</sup> with a microstrip feed of 0.5 mm. The proposed antenna is improved by cutting a number of circle shapes on the patch layer in different positions. The simulation results are divided into more sections according to the number of circle shapes cutting. The results are good acceptance and make the improved Vivaldi antenna valuable in many future wireless communication applications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-15
Arebu Dejen ◽  
Jeevani Jayasinghe ◽  
Murad Ridwan ◽  
Jaume Anguera ◽  

<abstract><p>Multi-band microstrip patch antennas are convenient for mm-wave wireless applications due to their low profile, less weight, and planar structure. This paper investigates patch geometry optimization of a single microstrip antenna by employing a binary coded genetic algorithm to attain triple band frequency operation for wireless network application. The algorithm iteratively creates new models of patch surface, evaluates the fitness function of each individual ranking them and generates the next set of offsprings. Finally, the fittest individual antenna model is returned. Genetically engineered antenna was simulated in ANSYS HFSS software and compared with the non-optimized reference antenna with the same dimensions. The optimized antenna operates at three frequency bands centered at 28 GHz, 40 GHz, and 47 GHz whereas the reference antenna operates only at 28 GHz with a directivity of 6.8 dB. Further, the test result exhibits broadside radiation patterns with peak directivities of 7.7 dB, 12.1 dB, and 8.2 dB respectively. The covered impedance bandwidths when S<sub>11</sub>$ \leq $-10 dB are 1.8 %, 5.5 % and 0.85 % respectively.</p></abstract>

Masanori Endo ◽  
Haruki Uchiyama ◽  
Yutaka Ohno ◽  
Jun Hirotani

Abstract Raman scatterings of both pristine and defective single-walled carbon nanotubes were measured. Defects on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were induced by UV/O3 treatment, and the correlation between the temperature dependence of the Raman shift of the G-band and the crystallinity of CNTs was investigated. In the temperature range of 250–600 K, a gradual negative change in the slope was observed; the linear shift of the Raman G-band frequency with respect to temperature increased as the crystallinity deteriorated. This phenomenon is attributed to the increase in the fourth-order phonon-phonon scattering interaction resulting from the induced defects.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Wei Zhang ◽  
Maojun Li ◽  
Mingnan Le ◽  
Bin Li ◽  
Jiaqi Wei

A tiny dual-band frequency selective surface structure is proposed in this paper. With dual-band rejection characteristics at the corresponding frequency points of the S-band and C-band, suitable for antenna stealth. To achieve miniaturization, the unit-cell architecture resembles the shape of a “S.” First of all, the author describes the parameters of the surface element, and then, the transmission characteristics of the surface element are analyzed by the equivalent circuit method. By maintaining a constant response to TE and TM polarization patterns and oblique incident angles, the suggested device ensures angular independence. The measured findings from the constructed FSS are used to validate the computed results. Finally, a new unit structure is provided for the application of FSS in antenna stealth.

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