The treatment of chronic congestive heart failure (CHF), secondary to myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) in dogs, has considerably changed in the last fifty years. An analysis of the literature concerning the therapy of chronic CHF in dogs affected by MMVD is not available, and it is needed. Narrative reviews (NRs) are aimed at identifying and summarizing what has been previously published, avoiding duplications, and seeking new study areas that have not yet been addressed. The most accessible open-access databases, PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar, were chosen, and the searching time frame was set in five decades, from 1970 to 2020. The 384 selected studies were classified into categories depending on the aim of the study, the population target, the pathogenesis of MMVD (natural/induced), and the resulting CHF. Over the years, the types of studies have increased considerably in veterinary medicine. In particular, there have been 43 (24.29%) clinical trials, 41 (23.16%) randomized controlled trials, 10 (5.65%) cross-over trials, 40 (22.60%) reviews, 5 (2.82%) comparative studies, 17 (9.60%) case-control studies, 2 (1.13%) cohort studies, 2 (1.13%) experimental studies, 2 (1.13%) questionnaires, 6 (3.40%) case-reports, 7 (3.95%) retrospective studies, and 2 (1.13%) guidelines. The experimental studies on dogs with an induced form of the disease were less numerous (49–27.68%) than the studies on dogs affected by spontaneous MMVD (128–72.32%). The therapy of chronic CHF in dogs has considerably changed in the last fifty years: in the last century, some of the currently prescribed drugs did not exist yet, while others had different indications.
Introduction. Acute kidney injury (AKI) remains a critical issue for cancer patients despite recent treatment improvements. This study aimed to assess the incidence of AKI in cancer patients and its related risk factors. Methods. A Retrospective cohort study was conducted at tertiary hospitals in the period 2016–2018. A data abstraction sheet was used to collect related variables from patients’ records. During admission, the incidence of AKI was assessed using creatinine measurements. RIFLE criteria were used to classify it into five categories of severity: risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage renal disease. Results. Using RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage renal disease) criteria, 6.9% of admissions were complicated with AKI. The severity of these fell into the categories of risk, injury, and failure, 3.3%, 1.7%, and 1.9%, respectively. In the multivariate model, the odds for developing AKI was significantly higher for patients with congestive heart failure (AOR = 17.1, 95% CI 1.7–80.1), chronic kidney disease (adjusted OR = 6.8, 95% CI 1.4–32.2 (
value 0.017)), sepsis (AOR = 4.4, 95% CI 1.9–10.1), hypercalcemia (AOR = 8.4, 95% CI 1.3–46.1), and admission to the ICU (AOR = 5.8, 95% CI 2.1–16.2). In addition, the mortality rate was nearly seven times higher for patients complicated by AKI (relative risk = 7.6, 95% CI 3.2–18.2). Conclusion. AKI was significantly associated with congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, sepsis, ICU admission, and hypercalcemia in cancer patients, resulting in poorer outcomes and higher mortality rates. AKI assessment for hospitalized cancer patients should be performed regularly, especially for patients at increased risk.
Background: An increasing number of patients are opting for spine surgery despite the associated risk of cardiovascular complications. The evidence regarding the incidence and risk factors of cardiovascular complications in spine surgery is insufficient. Therefore, we aimed to determine the incidence and risk factors for cardiovascular complications that occur perioperatively in spine surgery. Methods: This retrospective study included all patients who underwent spine surgery between January 2018 and December 2019 at a single center. Demographic, clinical, and operative data were collected from electronic medical records. The incidence of perioperative cardiac complications was determined. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors for the development of perioperative cardiovascular complications in the participants. Results: Of the 1,002 eligible patients enrolled in the study, six developed cardiac complications. Acute myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, and congestive heart failure occurred in one, two, and three patients, respectively. Risk factors for cardiovascular complications included scoliosis surgery (relative risk: RR, 18.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.346-257.35) and a history of congestive heart failure (RR, 120.97; 95% CI: 2.12-6898.80). Conclusion: The incidence of perioperative cardiovascular complications in patients who underwent spine surgery was 0.6%. High-risk patients should be closely monitored optimally managed throughout the perioperative period.
The association between congestive heart failure (CHF) of the CHA2DS2-VASc scores and thromboembolic (TE) events in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is a topic of debate due to conflicting results. As the importance of diastolic impairment in the occurrence of TE events is increasingly recognized, it is crucial to evaluate the predictive power of CHA2DS2-VASc scores with C criterion integrating diastolic parameters. We analyzed 4200 Korean nonvalvular AF patients (71 years of age, 59% men) to compare multiple echocardiographic definitions of CHF. Various guideline-suggested echocardiographic parameters for systolic or diastolic impairment, including left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 40%, the ratio of early diastolic mitral inflow velocity to early diastolic velocity of the mitral annulus (E/E’) ≥ 11, left atrial volume index > 34 mL/m2, and many others were tested for C criteria. Multivariate-adjusted Cox regression analysis showed that CHA2DS2-VASc score was an independent predictor for composite thromboembolic events only when CHF was defined as E/E’ ≥ 11 (hazard ratio, 1.26; p = 0.044) but not with other criteria including the original definition (hazard ratio, 1.10; p = 0.359). Our findings suggest that C criterion defined as diastolic impairment, such as E/E’ ≥ 11, may improve the predictive value of CHA2DS2-VASc scores.
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a significant health problem in Australia, and disproportionately affects rural Australians. Management of CHF in Australia is heavily centred around the general practitioner (GP). Australian and international literature indicates there is a gap between current and best practice in CHF management. There is little known about the non-pharmacological aspects of management, or CHF management in a rural Australian context. This study aimed to identify what Australian GPs practicing in the Northern Rivers Region of New South Wales, Australia, perceived were the barriers and enablers in the non-pharmacological management of CHF amongst community dwelling patients, to inform healthcare access, resourcing and delivery in Australian rural environments.
Qualitative study involving a realist thematic analysis of data collected from semi-structured face-to-face interviews.
Fifteen GPs and GP trainees participated. Four interlinked key themes underpinning GPs’ experiences with non-pharmacological management of CHF were interpreted from the interview data: (1) resources, (2) complexity of heart failure, (3) relationships, and (4) patient demographics, priorities and views affect how patients engage with non-pharmacological management of CHF.
Rural Australian GPs face considerable barriers to non-pharmacological management of CHF. The data suggests that increased rural Australian health services and community transportation, multidisciplinary management, and stronger professional networks have the potential to be invaluable enablers of CHF management. Further research exploring non-pharmacological management of CHF in other rural contexts may provide additional insights to better inform rural healthcare access and resourcing.
Objective: This study aimed to determine the incidence of postoperative major adverse cardiac events for patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. Methods: This single-center, retrospective study recruited 171 carotid endarterectomy patients between January 1999 and June 2018. Patients who received a carotid endarterectomy in conjunction with other surgery were excluded. The primary outcomes were the incidences of major adverse cardiac events (comprising myocardial infarction, significant arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, and cardiac death) within 7 days, 7–30 days, and > 30 days–1 year, postoperatively. The secondary outcomes were the factors related to major adverse cardiac events and the incidence of postoperative stroke. The patients’ charts were reviewed, and direct contact was made with them to obtain information on their status post discharge. Results: The incidences of major adverse cardiac events within 7 days, 7–30 days, and >30 days–1 year of the carotid endarterectomy were 3.5% of patients (95% confidence interval: 0.008–0.063), 1.2% (95% confidence interval: 0.004–0.028), and 1.8% (95% confidence interval: 0.002–0.037), respectively. The major adverse cardiac events occurring within 7 days were arrhythmia (2.3% of patients), cardiac arrest (1.8%), myocardial infarction (1.2%), and congestive heart failure (1.2%), while the corresponding postoperative stroke rate was 4.7%. Conclusion: The 7-day incidence of major adverse cardiac events after the carotid endarterectomy was 3.5%. The most common major adverse cardiac event during that period was cardiac arrhythmia.