confidence interval
Recently Published Documents


TOTAL DOCUMENTS

8125
(FIVE YEARS 4832)

H-INDEX

129
(FIVE YEARS 41)

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Lena Sophie Pfeifer ◽  
Judith Schmitz ◽  
Marietta Papadatou-Pastou ◽  
Jutta Peterburs ◽  
Silvia Paracchini ◽  
...  

Abstract Background In the general population, 10.6% of people favor their left hand over the right for motor tasks. Previous research suggests higher prevalence of atypical (left-, mixed-, or non-right-) handedness in (i) twins compared to singletons, and in (ii) monozygotic compared to dizygotic twins. Moreover, (iii) studies have shown a higher rate of handedness concordance in monozygotic compared to dizygotic twins, in line with genetic factors playing a role for handedness. Methods By means of a systematic review, we identified 59 studies from previous literature and performed three sets of random effects meta-analyses on (i) twin-to-singleton Odds Ratios (21 studies, n = 189,422 individuals) and (ii) monozygotic-to-dizygotic twin Odds Ratios (48 studies, n = 63,295 individuals), both times for prevalence of left-, mixed-, and non-right-handedness. For monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs we compared (iii) handedness concordance Odds Ratios (44 studies, n = 36,217 twin pairs). We also tested for potential effects of moderating variables, such as sex, age, the method used to assess handedness, and the twins’ zygosity. Results We found (i) evidence for higher prevalence of left- (Odds Ratio = 1.40, 95% Confidence Interval = [1.26, 1.57]) and non-right- (Odds Ratio = 1.36, 95% Confidence Interval = [1.22, 1.52]), but not mixed-handedness (Odds Ratio = 1.08, 95% Confidence Interval = [0.52, 2.27]) among twins compared to singletons. We further showed a decrease in Odds Ratios in more recent studies (post-1975: Odds Ratio = 1.30, 95% Confidence Interval = [1.17, 1.45]) compared to earlier studies (pre-1975: Odds Ratio = 1.90, 95% Confidence Interval = [1.59–2.27]). While there was (ii) no difference between monozygotic and dizygotic twins regarding prevalence of left- (Odds Ratio = 0.98, 95% Confidence Interval = [0.89, 1.07]), mixed- (Odds Ratio = 0.96, 95% Confidence Interval = [0.46, 1.99]), or non-right-handedness (Odds Ratio = 1.01, 95% Confidence Interval = [0.91, 1.12]), we found that (iii) handedness concordance was elevated among monozygotic compared to dizygotic twin pairs (Odds Ratio = 1.11, 95% Confidence Interval = [1.06, 1.18]). By means of moderator analyses, we did not find evidence for effects of potentially confounding variables. Conclusion We provide the largest and most comprehensive meta-analysis on handedness in twins. Although a raw, unadjusted analysis found a higher prevalence of left- and non-right-, but not mixed-handedness among twins compared to singletons, left-handedness was substantially more prevalent in earlier than in more recent studies. The single large, recent study which included birth weight, Apgar score and gestational age as covariates found no twin-singleton difference in handedness rate, but these covariates could not be included in the present meta-analysis. Together, the secular shift and the influence of covariates probably make it unsafe to conclude that twinning has a genuine relationship to handedness.


Author(s):  
José Antonio González ◽  
Mónica Giuliano ◽  
Silvia N. Pérez

AbstractResearch on impact in student achievement of online homework systems compared to traditional methods is ambivalent. Methodological issues in the study design, besides of technological diversity, can account for this uncertainty. Hypothesis This study aims to estimate the effect size of homework practice with exercises automatically provided by the ‘e-status’ platform, in students from five Engineering programs. Instead of comparing students using the platform with others not using it, we distributed the subject topics into two blocks, and created nine probability problems for each block. After that, the students were randomly assigned to one block and could solve the related exercises through e-status. Teachers and evaluators were masked to the assignation. Five weeks after the assignment, all students answered a written test with questions regarding all topics. The study outcome was the difference between both blocks’ scores obtained from the test. The two groups comprised 163 and 166 students. Of these, 103 and 107 respectively attended the test, while the remainder were imputed with 0. Those assigned to the first block obtained an average outcome of −1.85, while the average in the second block was −3.29 (95% confidence interval of difference, −2.46 to −0.43). During the period in which they had access to the platform before the test, the average total time spent solving problems was less than three hours. Our findings provide evidence that a small amount of active online work can positively impact on student performance.


F1000Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
pp. 44
Author(s):  
Guillermo Droppelmann ◽  
Felipe Feijoo ◽  
Cristobal Greene ◽  
Manuel Tello ◽  
Julio Rosales ◽  
...  

Background: Lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET) is prevalent in the upper extremity, with various therapeutic options. Understanding the types and the relations between the radiological tendon features would help to develop more specific treatments. This study reviewed ultrasound exams of LET to investigate the types of degenerative findings and the relationships between them in one of the most prominent sports medicine clinics in Latin America. Methods: A retrospective study was performed. We evaluated 4335 ultrasonographic exams with LET from 2017 and 2018. Five principal degenerative ultrasound criteria with subtypes were selected: hypoechogenicity, neovascularity, calcification, enthesopathy, and intrasubstance tear. A multiple linear regression model was conducted to explore the association between the findings, sex, and age. Results: Overall, 4324 ultrasound exams were analyzed; 2607 (60.29%) were males. Multiple degenerative tendon findings were found in adults (≥18 years) with LET. Hypoechogenicity (67.77%) and neovascularity (37.8%) were the most frequent. The mean length of a tendon tear in both sexes was 4.44 (± 2.81) millimeters. Mild hypoechogenicity (P < .001), and depth intrasubstance tear (P < .01) were statistically significant between them. Severe hypoechogenicity was associated with an increase in all tendon tear dimensions for length 1.37 ([95% Confidence interval (CI), 0.57, 2.17]; P < .001), for width 1.10 ([95% CI, 0.33, 1.87]; P < .01) and for depth 1.64 ([95% CI, 0.40, 2.88]; P < .01). Additional findings associated with an increase in the length dimension were 0.42 associated with focal neovascularity ([95% CI, 0.19, 0.65]; P < .001), and 0.71 associated with multiple neovascularity ([95% CI, 0.27, 1.15]; P < .01). Conclusions: Hypoechogenicity and neovascularity findings presented a positive association with the size of tendon tear in patients with LET. This study reaffirms the increased predominance of tendon tear during the 4th to 6th decades of life.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ryuta Muraki ◽  
Yoshifumi Morita ◽  
Shinya Ida ◽  
Ryo Kitajima ◽  
Satoru Furuhashi ◽  
...  

Abstract Background: Various hemostatic devices have been utilized to reduce blood loss during hepatectomy. Nonetheless, a comparison between monopolar and bipolar coagulation, particularly their usefulness or inferiority, has been poorly documented. The aim of this study is to reveal the characteristics of these hemostatic devices.Methods: A total of 264 patients who underwent open hepatectomy at our institution from January 2009 to December 2018 were included. Monopolar and bipolar hemostatic devices were used in 160 (monopolar group) and 104 (bipolar group) cases, respectively. Operative outcomes and thermal damage to the resected specimens were compared between these groups using propensity score matching according to background factors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictive factors for postoperative complications.Results: After propensity score matching, 73 patients per group were enrolled. The monopolar group had significantly lower total operative time (239 vs. 275 min; P=0.013) and intraoperative blood loss (487 vs. 790 mL; P<0.001). However, the incidence rates of ascites (27.4% vs. 8.2%; P=0.002) and grade ≥3 intra-abdominal infection (12.3% vs. 2.7%; P=0.028) were significantly higher in the monopolar group. Thermal damage to the resected specimens was significantly longer in the monopolar group (4.6 vs. 1.2 mm; P<0.001). Use of monopolar hemostatic device was an independent risk factor for ascites (odds ratio, 5.626, 95% confidence interval 1.881–16.827; P=0.002) and severe intra-abdominal infection (odds ratio, 5.905, 95% confidence interval 1.096–31.825; P=0.039).Conclusions: Although monopolar devices have an excellent hemostatic ability, they might damage the remnant liver. The use of monopolar devices can be one of the factors that increase the frequency of complications.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Indiana Cooper ◽  
Peter Brukner ◽  
Brooke L. Devlin ◽  
Anjana J. Reddy ◽  
Melanie Fulton ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Knee osteoarthritis has an inflammatory component that is linked to pain and joint pathology, yet common non-surgical and non-pharmacological interventions (e.g., exercise, calorie restricting diets) do not typically target inflammation. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a telehealth delivered anti-inflammatory diet intervention for knee osteoarthritis. Methods This 9-week single-arm feasibility study recruited participants aged 40–85 years with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (inclusion criteria: average pain ≥4/10 or maximal pain ≥5/10 during past week). All participants received a telehealth-delivered anti-inflammatory dietary education intervention involving 1:1 consultations at baseline, 3- and 6-week follow-up. The diet emphasised nutrient-dense wholefoods and minimally processed anti-inflammatory foods and discouraged processed foods considered to be pro-inflammatory. The primary outcome of feasibility was assessed via: i) eligibility, recruitment and retention rates; ii) self-reported dietary adherence; iii) adverse events; and iv) treatment satisfaction. Post-intervention interviews evaluated the acceptability of the dietary intervention delivered via telehealth. Secondary outcomes included changes in self-reported body mass, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), health-related quality of life (EuroQoL-5D), analgesic use and global rating of change. Worthwhile effects were determined by the minimal detectable change (MDC) for all five KOOS-subscales (pain, symptoms, activities of daily living, sport/recreation, quality of life) being contained within the 95% confidence interval. Results Forty-eight of seventy-three (66%) individuals screened were eligible and 28 enrolled over 2 months (82% female, mean age 66 ± 8 years, body mass index 30.7 ± 4.8 kg.m−2). Six participants withdrew prior to final follow-up (21% drop-out). Of those with final follow-up data, attendance at scheduled telehealth consultations was 99%. Self-reported adherence to diet during the 9-week intervention period: everyday = 27%, most of time = 68% and some of time = 5%. Two minor adverse events were reported. Change scores contained the MDC within the 95% confidence interval for all five KOOS subscales. Suggestions to improve study design and limit drop-out included an initial face-to-face consultation and more comprehensive habitual dietary intake data collection. Conclusion This study supports the feasibility of a full-scale randomised controlled trial to determine the efficacy of a primarily telehealth-delivered anti-inflammatory dietary education intervention in adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Trial registration ACTRN12620000229976 prospectively on 25/2/2020.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Hiroaki Ogata ◽  
Katsuyuki Katahira ◽  
Aimi Enokizu-Ogawa ◽  
Yujiro Jingushi ◽  
Akiko Ishimatsu ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Asthma–chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap (ACO) patients experience exacerbations more frequently than those with asthma or COPD alone. Since low diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is known as a strong risk factor for severe exacerbation in COPD, DLCO or a transfer coefficient of the lung for carbon monoxide (KCO) is speculated to also be associated with the risk of exacerbations in ACO. Methods This study was conducted as an observational cohort survey at the National Hospital Organization Fukuoka National Hospital. DLCO and KCO were measured in 94 patients aged ≥ 40 years with a confirmed diagnosis of ACO. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for the exacerbation-free rate over one year were estimated and compared across the levels of DLCO and KCO. Results Within one year, 33.3% of the cohort experienced exacerbations. After adjustment for potential confounders, low KCO (< 80% per predicted) was positively associated with the incidence of exacerbation (multivariable-adjusted HR = 3.71 (95% confidence interval 1.32–10.4)). The association between low DLCO (< 80% per predicted) and exacerbations showed similar trends, although it failed to reach statistical significance (multivariable-adjusted HR = 1.31 (95% confidence interval 0.55–3.11)). Conclusions Low KCO was a significant risk factor for exacerbations among patients with ACO. Clinicians should be aware that ACO patients with impaired KCO are at increased risk of exacerbations and that careful management in such a population is mandatory.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mahmudur Rahman Hera ◽  
N Tessa Pierce-Ward ◽  
David Koslicki

Sketching methods offer computational biologists scalable techniques to analyze data sets that continue to grow in size. MinHash is one such technique that has enjoyed recent broad application. However, traditional MinHash has previously been shown to perform poorly when applied to sets of very dissimilar sizes. FracMinHash was recently introduced as a modification of MinHash to compensate for this lack of performance when set sizes differ. While experimental evidence has been encouraging, FracMinHash has not yet been analyzed from a theoretical perspective. In this paper, we perform such an analysis and prove that while FracMinHash is not unbiased, this bias is easily corrected. Next, we detail how a simple mutation model interacts with FracMinHash and are able to derive confidence intervals for evolutionary mutation distances between pairs of sequences as well as hypothesis tests for FracMinHash. We find that FracMinHash estimates the containment of a genome in a large metagenome more accurately and more precisely when compared to traditional MinHash, and the confidence interval performs significantly better in estimating mutation distances. A python-based implementation of the theorems we derive is freely available at https://github.com/KoslickiLab/mutation-rate-ci-calculator. The results presented in this paper can be reproduced using the code at https://github.com/KoslickiLab/ScaledMinHash-reproducibles.


Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document