Confidence Interval
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Amy Tyler ◽  
Mersine A. Bryan ◽  
Chuan Zhou ◽  
Rita Mangione-Smith ◽  
Derek Williams ◽  

OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the association between dexamethasone dosing and outcomes for children hospitalized with croup. METHODS: This study was nested within a multisite prospective cohort study of children aged 6 months to 6 years admitted to 1 of 5 US children’s hospitals between July 2014 and June /2016. Multivariable linear and logistic mixed-effects regression models were used to examine the association between the number of dexamethasone doses (1 vs >1) and outcomes (length of stay [LOS], cost, and 30-day same-cause reuse). All multivariable analyses included a site-specific random effect to account for clustering within hospital and were adjusted for age, sex, race and ethnicity, presenting severity, medical complexity, insurance, caregiver education, and hospital. In cost analyses, we controlled for LOS. RESULTS: Among 234 children hospitalized with croup, patient characteristics did not differ by number of doses. The proportion receiving >1 dose varied by hospital (range 27.9%–57.1%). In adjusted analyses, >1 dose was not associated with same-cause reuse (odds ratio 0.87 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.26 to 2.95]) but was associated with 45% longer LOS (relative risk = 1.45 [95% CI: 1.30 to 1.62]). When we controlled for LOS, >1 dose was not associated with differential cost ($−31.2 [95% CI $−424.4 to $362.0]). Eighty-two (35%) children received dexamethasone before presentation. CONCLUSIONS: We found significant interhospital variation in dexamethasone dosing and LOS. When we controlled for severity on presentation, >1 dexamethasone dose was associated with longer LOS but not reuse. Although incomplete adjustment for severity is one possible explanation, some providers may routinely keep children hospitalized to administer multiple dexamethasone doses.

2021 ◽  
Vol 50 (11) ◽  
pp. 818-826
Lenard Cheng ◽  
Wei Ming Ng ◽  
Ziwei Lin ◽  
Lawrence Siu-Chun Law ◽  
Lorraine Yong ◽  

Introduction: Inappropriate attendances (IAs) to emergency departments (ED) create an unnecessary strain on healthcare systems. With decreased ED attendance during the COVID-19 pandemic, this study postulates that there are less IAs compared to before the pandemic and identifies factors associated with IAs. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 29,267 patient presentations to a healthcare cluster in Singapore from 7 April 2020 to 1 June 2020, and 36,370 patients within a corresponding period in 2019. This time frame coincided with local COVID-19 lockdown measures. IAs were defined as patient presentations with no investigations required, with patients eventually discharged from the ED. IAs in the 2020 period during the pandemic were compared with 2019. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with IAs. Results: There was a decrease in daily IAs in 2020 compared to 2019 (9.91±3.06 versus 24.96±5.92, P<0.001). IAs were more likely with self-referrals (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50–1.66) and walk-ins (aOR 4.96, 95% CI 4.59–5.36), and those diagnosed with non-specific headache (aOR 2.08, 95% CI 1.85–2.34), or non-specific low back pain (aOR 1.28, 95% CI 1.15–1.42). IAs were less likely in 2020 compared to 2019 (aOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.65–0.71) and older patients (aOR 0.79 each 10 years, 95% CI 0.78–0.80). Conclusion: ED IAs decreased during COVID-19. The pandemic has provided a unique opportunity to examine factors associated with IAs. Keywords: COVID-19, emergency department, inappropriate attendance, utilisation

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Gaku Yamamoto ◽  
Hajime Asahina ◽  
Osamu Honjo ◽  
Toshiyuki Sumi ◽  
Atsushi Nakamura ◽  

AbstractOsimertinib is a standard of care therapy for previously untreated epidermal growth factor receptor mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer. However, limited data exist regarding the efficacy and safety of osimertinib as a first-line therapy for elderly patients aged 75 years or older. To assess the potential clinical benefits of osimertinib in this population, this retrospective multi-institutional observational study included 132 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (age ≥ 75 years), who received osimertinib as first-line treatment. The proportion of patients with 1-year progression-free survival was 65.8% (95% confidence interval 57.1–73.5). The median progression-free survival was 19.4 (95% confidence interval 15.9–23.9) months. The median overall survival was not reached (95% confidence interval 24.6–not reached). The frequency of pneumonitis was 17.4%, with a grade 3 or higher rate of 9.1%. More than two-thirds of treatment discontinuations due to pneumonitis occurred within 3 months of starting osimertinib, and the prognosis of patients with pneumonitis was unsatisfactory. Osimertinib is one of the effective first-line therapeutic options for patients aged 75 years or older; however, special caution should be exercised due to the potential development of pneumonitis.

2021 ◽  
Aditya Sharma ◽  
Gina Oda ◽  
Mark Holodniy

Background BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccines are highly protective against COVID-19. Concern about waning immunity and reduced effectiveness against SARS-COV-2 variants led to use of a third dose six months after completing the primary series. We used data from the Veterans Health Administration to evaluate the effectiveness of a third dose of BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 compared to the primary series in preventing post-vaccination COVID-19. Methods During January 1 - November 22, 2020, third dose recipients were matched (1:1) to demographically similar controls who did not receive a third dose. Eligible participants had completed the primary series at least six months (180 days) before recruitment date. Long-term care residents were excluded. Primary outcomes were documented SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 hospitalization. Effectiveness was estimated as 1-incidence rate ratio. Findings Following matching, the BNT162b2 group included 99,856 pairs and the mRNA-1273 group included 74,116 pairs. In BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 groups, median age was 72 (interquartile range [IQR]: 65-75) and 72 (IQR: 67-76) years, 94,990 (95.1%) and 71,213 (96.1%) were male, and 61,261 (61.3%) and 52,170 (70.4%) were non-Hispanic White, respectively. Effectiveness of a third dose of BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 compared to the primary series was 49.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 41.2-56.5%) and 46.0% (95% CI: 33.5-56.2%) for documented SARS-CoV-2 infection and 52.3% (95% CI: 33.8-65.6%) and 44.7% (95% CI: 10.7-65.7%) for COVID-19 hospitalization, respectively. Interpretation A third dose of BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 is moderately effective against post-vaccination COVID-19 infection compared to the primary series.

2021 ◽  
Vol 36 (4) ◽  
pp. 332-341
Hyo Jin Lee ◽  
Eunhye Bae ◽  
Hong Yeul Lee ◽  
Sang-Min Lee ◽  
Jinwoo Lee

Background: Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) have increased risks of delirium, which is associated with worse outcomes. As pharmacologic treatments for delirium are ineffective, prevention is important. Nonpharmacologic preventive strategies include exposure to natural light and restoring circadian rhythm. We investigated the effect of exposure to natural light through windows on delirium in the ICU.Methods: This retrospective cohort study assessed all patients admitted to the medical ICU of a university-affiliated hospital between January and June 2020 for eligibility. The ICU included 12 isolation rooms, six with and six without windows. Patients with ICU stays of >48 hours were included and were divided into groups based on their admission to a single room with (window group) or without windows (windowless group). The primary outcome was the cumulative incidence of delirium. The secondary outcomes were the numbers of delirium- and mechanical ventilation-free days, ICU and hospital length of stay, and in-ICU and 28-day mortalities.Results: Of the 150 included patients (window group: 83 [55.3%]; windowless group: 67 [44.7%]), the cumulative incidence of delirium was significantly lower in the window group than in the windowless group (21.7% vs. 43.3%; relative risk, 1.996; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.220–3.265). Other secondary outcomes did not differ between groups. Admission to a room with a window was independently associated with a decreased risk of delirium (adjusted odds ratio, 0.318; 95% CI, 0.125–0.805).Conclusions: Exposure to natural light through windows was associated with a lower incidence of delirium in the ICU.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Daofeng Dai ◽  
Yan Yang ◽  
Yong Yang ◽  
Tianfeng Dang ◽  
Jiansheng Xiao ◽  

Abstract Background In recent years, the incidence rate of Thyroid carcinoma (TC) has been increasing worldwide. Thus, research on factors of TC carcinogenesis may promote TC prevention and decrease the incidence rate. There are several studies targeting the correlation between gut microbiota and thyroid disease. Carcinogenesis of several malignancies is influenced by microbiota. However, thyroid microbiome of TC has not been revealed. This study investigated thyroid microbiota in different TC microhabitats. Methods We performed 16s rRNA gene sequencing using tumor tissues and matched peritumor tissues from 30 patients with TC to characterize thyroid microbiota. Results The richness and diversity of thyroid microbiota were lower in TC tumor samples than in matched peritumor tissues. At the genus level, the core microbiota of thyroid included Sphingomonas, Comamonas, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Microvirgula, and Soonwooa. The abundance of Sphingomonas and Aeromonas was significantly increased in tumor tissues, while the abundance of Comamonas, Acinetobacter, and Peptostreptococcus was significantly enhanced in peritumor tissues. The combination of Comamonas and Sphingomonas could discriminate tumor samples from peritumor samples with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.981 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.949–1.000). The abundance of Sphingomonas was significantly higher in N1 stage than in N0 stage. Sphingomonas could distinguish between N0 and N1 stage with an AUC of 0.964 (95% CI 0.907–1.000). Conclusions The microbial diversity and composition were significantly different between peritumor and tumor microhabitats from patients with TC, which may eventually affect TC carcinogenesis and progression. The combination of Comamonas and Sphingomonas could serve as a powerful biomarker for discrimination between tumor and peritumor tissues. Furthermore, the higher abundance of Sphingomonas was correlated with lymph node metastasis, indicating that the abundance of Sphingomonas may indicate a poor prognosis for TC patients, and Sphingomonas may play a role in promoting TC progression.

2021 ◽  
Vol 36 (4) ◽  
pp. 308-316
Ahlem Trifi ◽  
Sami Abdellatif ◽  
Yosri Masseoudi ◽  
Asma Mehdi ◽  
Oussama Benjima ◽  

Background: The kidney represents a potential target for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Acute kidney injury (AKI) can occur through several mechanisms and includes intrinsic tissue injury by direct viral invasion. Clinical data about the clinical course of AKI are lacking. We aimed to investigate the proportion, risk factors, and prognosis of AKI in critical patients affected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).Methods: A case/control study conducted in two intensive care units of a tertiary teaching hospital from September to December 2020.Results: Among 109 patients, 75 were male (69%), and the median age was 64 years (interquartile range [IQR], 57–71 years); 48 (44%) developed AKI within 4 days (IQR, 1–9). Of these 48 patients, 11 (23%), 9 (19%), and 28 (58%) were classified as stage 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Eight patients received renal replacement therapy. AKI patients were older and had more frequent sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and rhabdomyolysis; higher initial urea and creatinine; more marked inflammatory syndrome and hematological disorders; and required more frequent mechanical ventilation and vasopressors. An elevated level of D-dimers (odds ratio [OR], 12.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9–85) was an independent factor of AKI. Sepsis was near to significance (OR, 5.22; 95% CI, 0.94–28; P=0.058). Renal recovery was identified in three patients. AKI, hypoxemia with the ratio of the arterial partial pressure of oxygen and the inspiratory concentration of oxygen <70, and vasopressors were identified as mortality factors.Conclusions: AKI occurred in almost half the patients with critical COVID-19. A high level of D-dimers and sepsis contributed significantly to its development. AKI significantly worsened the prognosis in these patients.

2021 ◽  
Jiaqiang Zhang ◽  
Shao-Yin Sum ◽  
Jeng-Guan Hsu ◽  
Ming-Feng Chiang ◽  
Tian-Shyug Lee ◽  

Abstract BACKGROUND To date, no data on the effect of adjuvant whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT) on oncologic outcomes, such as all-cause death, locoregional recurrence (LRR), and distant metastasis (DM), are available in women with left-side breast intraductal carcinoma (IDC) and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). PATIENTS AND METHODS : We enrolled 294 women with left-breast IDC at clinical stages IA–IIIC and HFrEF receiving breast-conserving surgery (BCS) followed by adjuvant WBRT or non-adjuvant WBRT. We categorized them into two groups based on their adjuvant WBRT status and compared their overall survival (OS), LRR, and DM outcomes. We calculated the propensity score and applied inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) to create a pseudo-study cohort. Furthermore, we performed a multivariate analysis of the propensity score–weighted population to obtain hazard ratios (HRs). RESULTS In the IPTW-adjusted model, adjuvant WBRT (adjusted HR [aHR]: 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.44–0.94) was a significant independent prognostic factor for all-cause death (P = 0.0424), and the aHR (95% CI) of LRR and DM for adjuvant WBRT was 0.33 (0.24–0.71; P = 0.0017) and 0.37 (0.22–0.63; P = 0.0004), respectively, compared with the no adjuvant WBRT group. The aHR (95% CI) of breast cancer death for adjuvant WBRT was 0.54 (0.44–0.85; P = 0.0201) compared with no adjuvant WBRT group. CONCLUSION Adjuvant WBRT was associated with a decrease in all-cause death, breast cancer death, LRR, and DM in women with left IDC and HFrEF compared with no adjuvant WBRT.

2021 ◽  
Yuri Cho ◽  
Eun Ju Cho ◽  
Jeong-Ju Yoo ◽  
Young Chang ◽  
Goh Eun Chung ◽  

Abstract The positive association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been suggested. However, no studies have yet looked at how the risk of developing HCC varies with changes in MetS status. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between changes in MetS and subsequent HCC development. Data were obtained from the Korean National Health Insurance Service. 5,975,308 individuals who participated in health screenings both in 2009–2010 and 2011–2012 were included. Subjects were divided into four groups according to change in MetS status during the two-year interval screening (from 2009 to 2011): sustained non-MetS, transition to MetS, transition to non-MetS, and sustained MetS. Cox regression analysis was used to examine the hazard ratios of HCC. During a median of 7.3 years follow-up, 25,880 incident HCCs were identified. Compared to the sustained non-MetS group, age, sex, smoking, alcohol, regular exercise, and body mass index-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for HCC development were 1.01 (0.97–1.05) for the transition to MetS group; 1.05 (1.003–1.09) for the transition to non-Met group; and 1.07 (1.03–1.10) for the sustained MetS group. Stratified analyses according to age, sex, smoking, alcohol intake, exercise, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and chronic kidney disease showed similar results. A significantly increased HCC risk was observed in the sustained MetS and transition to non-MetS groups. The baseline status of MetS was associated with the risk of HCC development. Strategies to improve MetS, especially targeting insulin resistance might prevent HCC development.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (23) ◽  
pp. 7312
Radosław Mirski ◽  
Dorota Dziurka ◽  
Marcin Kuliński ◽  
Adrian Trociński ◽  
Jakub Kawalerczyk ◽  

The aim of this study was to assess the static bending strength of pine glulam manufactured when obtaining the main yield, i.e., structural timber or timber to be used in the production of structural glulam. Analyses were conducted on pine timber harvested from three different locations in Poland. Two beam variants were manufactured, differing in the timber arrangement, horizontal vs. vertical. It was shown that the static bending strength of beams manufactured in the vertical timber arrangement variant is slightly higher than that of beams produced from horizontally arranged layers, with the latter beams characterised by a smaller confidence interval for this strength. Moreover, it was found that the difference in the value of the 5th percentile for both beam types is slight and both beam types are considered to exhibit a high bending strength of over 40 N/mm2.

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