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Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 137
Mohamed Y. Elwazir ◽  
Mohammad H. Hussein ◽  
Eman A. Toraih ◽  
Essam Al Ageeli ◽  
Safya E. Esmaeel ◽  

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as essential biomolecules with variable diagnostic and/or prognostic utility in several diseases, including coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed for the first time to investigate the potential association of five angiogenesis-related lncRNAs (PUNISHER, SENCR, MIAT, MALAT1, and GATA6-AS) variants with CAD susceptibility and/or severity. TaqMan Real-Time genotyping for PUNISHER rs12318065A/C, SENCR rs12420823C/T, MIAT rs1061540C/T, MALAT1 rs3200401T/C, and GATA6-AS1 rs73390820A/G were run on the extracted genomic DNA from 100 unrelated patients with stable CAD undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography and from 100 controls. After adjusting covariates, the studied variants showed no association with disease susceptibility; however, MIAT*T/T genotype was associated with a more severe Gensini score. In contrast, MALAT1*T/C heterozygosity was associated with a lower score. The lipid profile, and to a lesser extent smoking status, male sex, weight, hypertension, and MALAT1 (T > C) (negative correlation), explained the variance between patients/control groups via a principal component analysis. Incorporating the principal components into a logistic regression model to predict CAD yielded a 0.92 AUC. In conclusion: MIAT rs1061540 and MALAT1 rs3200401 variants were associated with CAD severity and Gensini score in the present sample of the Egyptian population. Further large multi-center and functional analyses are needed to confirm the results and identify the underlying molecular mechanisms.

Critical Care ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 26 (1) ◽  
Vanessa Catenacci ◽  
Fatima Sheikh ◽  
Kush Patel ◽  
Alison E. Fox-Robichaud

Abstract Background Sepsis, the dysregulated host response to infection, triggers abnormal pro-coagulant and pro-inflammatory host responses. Limitations in early disease intervention highlight the need for effective diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Protein C’s role as an anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory molecule makes it an appealing target for sepsis biomarker studies. This meta-analysis aims to assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of protein C (PC) as a biomarker for adult sepsis. Methods We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane Library from database inception to September 12, 2021. We included prospective observational studies of (1) adult patients (> 17) with sepsis or suspicion of sepsis that; (2) measured PC levels with 24 h of study admission with; and (3) the goal of examining PC as a diagnostic or prognostic biomarker. Two authors screened articles and conducted risk of bias (RoB) assessment, using the Quality in Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) and the Quality Assessment in Diagnostic Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) tools. If sufficient data were available, meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the standardized mean difference (SMD) between patient populations. Results Twelve studies were included, and 8 were synthesized for meta-analysis. Pooled analysis demonstrated moderate certainty of evidence that PC levels were less reduced in sepsis survivors compared to non-survivors (6 studies, 741 patients, SMD = 0.52, 95% CI 0.24–0.81, p = 0.0003, I2 = 55%), and low certainty of evidence that PC levels were less reduced in septic patients without disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) compared to those with DIC (3 studies, 644 patients, SMD = 0.97, 95% CI 0.62–1.32, p < 0.00001, I2 = 67%). PC could not be evaluated as a diagnostic tool due to heterogeneous control populations between studies. Conclusion and relevance Our review demonstrates that PC levels were significantly higher in sepsis survivors compared to non-survivors and patients with sepsis but not disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Our evaluation is limited by high RoB in included studies and poor reporting of the sensitivity and specificity of PC as a sepsis biomarker. Future studies are needed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of PC to identify its clinical significance as a biomarker for early sepsis recognition. Trial Registration PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021229786. The study protocol was published in BMJ Open.

2022 ◽  
Arturas Ziemys

COVID-19 pandemics increased patient hospitalization impacting the hospital operations and patient care beyond COVID-19 patients. Although longitudinal symptom analysis may provide prognostic utility about clinical outcomes and critical hospitalization events of COVID-19 patients, such analysis is still missing. Here, we have analyzed over 10,000 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the Houston Methodist Hospital at the Texas Medical Center from the beginning of pandemics till April of 2020. Our study used statistical and regression analysis over symptoms grouped into symptom groups based on their anatomical locations. Symptom intensity analysis indicated that symptoms peaked at the time of admission and subsided within the first week of hospitalization for most of the patients. Patients surviving the infection (n=9,263), had faster remission rates, usually within the first days of hospitalization compared to sustained symptom for the deceased patient group (n=1,042). The latter had also a longer hospitalization stay and more comorbidities including diabetes, cardiovascular, and kidney disease. Inflammation-associated systemic symptoms (Systemic) such as fever and chills, and lower respiratory system specific symptoms (Lower Respiratory System) such as shortness of breath and pneumonia, were the most informative for the analysis of longitudinal symptom dynamics. Our results suggest that the symptom remission rate could possess prognostic utility in evaluating patient hospitalization stay and clinical outcomes early in hospitalization. We believe knowledge and information about symptom remission rates can be used to improve hospital operations and patient care by using common and relatively easy to process source of information.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Ning Qiao ◽  
Chuzhong Li ◽  
Jing Xu ◽  
Guofo Ma ◽  
Jie Kang ◽  

IntroductionOwing to the close vicinity of the optic chiasma, visual dysfunction is known as one of the most common surgical indications and postoperative complications in adult patients with craniopharyngiomas, probably leading to poor quality of life. Historically, very few consistent predictive factors associated with the visual outcome are identified, which may not be helpful for patient counseling and preoperative decision making. Recently, optical coherence tomography (OCT) serving as a novel high-resolution imaging technique can assess the retinal morphology by measuring the circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) and macular ganglion cell complex thickness. However, few studies have examined the prognostic utility of OCT parameters for visual outcome after surgery for craniopharyngiomas. This study aims to use the largest series to evaluate the association between OCT parameters and visual outcome after extended endoscopic endonasal surgery (EEES) for primary craniopharyngiomas in adults.Material and MethodsFrom October 2018 to October 2020, one hundred and seventy eyes in 88 adult patients with newly confirmed craniopharyngiomas were retrospectively reviewed and pertinent prognostic factors were analyzed.ResultsGross total resection was performed in 82 (93.2%) patients. The median postoperative follow-up time was 10.9 months. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that increased temporal cpRNFL thickness was associated with higher odds of visual acuity (VA) improvement and maintenance (OR = 1.070; 95% CI, 1.005–1.140; p = 0.035), and greater inferior cpRNFL thickness was significantly associated with visual field (VF) improvement and maintenance (OR = 1.034; 95% CI, 1.001–1.068; p = 0.046). Furthermore, tight adhesion between optic nerves and craniopharyngiomas was demonstrated as an independent adverse factor for either postoperative VA or VF (p = 0.048, p = 0.030, respectively). The ROC results further verified the robustness of the prediction model either in VA (AUC = 0.843; 95% CI, 0.734–0.952; p &lt; 0.001) or VF (AUC = 0.849; 95% CI, 0.741–0.958; p &lt; 0.001).ConclusionPreoperative OCT can effectively predict visual outcome after EEES for adult craniopharyngiomas. It can also serve as a reliable alternative to evaluate preoperative visual field defects, especially for patients with lower compliance. Tight adhesion was confirmed as an independent risk factor for postoperative visual outcome. The OCT-based multivariable prediction models developed in the present study may contribute to patient counseling on visual prognosis.

Ray Wang ◽  
Benjamin Solomon ◽  
Stephen J Luen ◽  
Owen W.J. Prall ◽  
Christine Khoo ◽  

Summary Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare disease with poor prognosis whose clinical heterogeneity can at times present a challenge to accurate and timely diagnosis. We present the case of a patient who presented with extensive pulmonary lesions, mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy and an adrenal mass in whom the oncological diagnosis was initially uncertain. Through the use of immunohistochemistry, biochemistry and genomic testing, an accurate diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma was ultimately made which resulted in more directed treatment being administered. The use of multidisciplinary input and genomics to aid in diagnosis and prognosis of adrenocortical carcinoma is discussed. Learning points Adrenocortical carcinomas can present a diagnostic challenge to clinicians given it is a rare malignancy with significant clinical heterogeneity. Specialist multidisciplinary team input is vital in the diagnosis and management of adrenocortical carcinomas. Hormonal testing is recommended in the diagnostic workup of adrenal masses, even in the absence of overt clinical signs/symptoms of hormone excess. Immunostaining for the highly sensitive and specific steroidogenic factor-1 is vital for accurate diagnosis. Genomics can provide prognostic utility in management of adrenocortical carcinoma.

2021 ◽  
pp. 216770262110565
Monika A. Waszczuk ◽  
Christopher J. Hopwood ◽  
Benjamin J. Luft ◽  
Leslie C. Morey ◽  
Greg Perlman ◽  

Past psychiatric diagnoses are central to patient case formulation and prognosis. Recently, alternative classification models such as the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) proposed to assess traits to predict clinically relevant outcomes. In the current study, we directly compared personality traits and past diagnoses as predictors of future mental health and functioning in three independent, prospective samples. Regression analyses found that personality traits significantly predicted future first onsets of psychiatric disorders (change in [∆] R2 = .06–.15), symptom chronicity (∆ R2 = .03–.06), and functioning (∆ R2 = .02–.07), beyond past and current psychiatric diagnoses. Conversely, past psychiatric diagnoses did not provide an incremental prediction of outcomes when personality traits and other concurrent predictors were already included in the model. Overall, personality traits predicted a variety of outcomes in diverse settings beyond diagnoses. Past diagnoses were generally not informative about future outcomes when personality was considered. Together, these findings support the added value of personality traits assessment in case formulation, consistent with the HiTOP model.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Yosuke Nabeshima ◽  
Tetsuji Kitano ◽  
Masaaki Takeuchi

Background: The right ventricular (RV) function is an important prognostic marker of asymptomatic aortic stenosis (AS). However, previous publications have not addressed the additive value of conventional RV parameters over left heart parameters. Whether three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE)-derived RV ejection fraction (RVEF) has prognostic utility independent of 3DE derived left heart parameters is also unknown. We investigated the prognostic utility of 3DE RVEF in patients with asymptomatic AS.Methods: We retrospectively selected 392 asymptomatic AS patients. RVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left atrial volumes (LAVs) were measured using 3DE datasets. We determined the association of those parameters, as well as of aortic valve replacement (AVR), and Charlson's comorbidity index with cardiac events. We also analyzed whether RVEF has incremental value over two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) RV parameters.Results: During a median follow-up of 27 months, 57 patients developed cardiac events, and 68 patients received AVR. Univariate Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that RVEF was associated with cardiac events (p &lt; 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that RVEF was significantly associated with cardiac events (p &lt; 0.001) even after adjusting for AVR, Charlson's comorbidity index, LVEF, LAV, E/e', and indexed aortic valve area (iAVA). An incremental value of RVEF over left heart parameters was also demonstrated using a nested regression model. Classification and regression-tree analysis selected RVEF first with a cut-off value of 41%. RVEF had incremental value over iAVA, LVEF, and 2DE conventional RV parameters for its association with future outcomes.Conclusions: 3DE RVEF had significant prognostic value even after adjusting for comorbidities, left heart parameters, and conventional 2DE RV parameters in asymptomatic aortic stenosis.

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