respiratory system
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Shankar Shambhu ◽  
Deepika Koundal ◽  
Prasenjit Das ◽  
Chetan Sharma

COVID-19 pandemic has hit the world with such a force that the world's leading economies are finding it challenging to come out of it. Countries with the best medical facilities are even cannot handle the increasing number of cases and fatalities. This disease causes significant damage to the lungs and respiratory system of humans, leading to their death. Computed tomography (CT) images of the respiratory system are analyzed in the proposed work to classify the infected people with non-infected people. Deep learning binary classification algorithms have been applied, which have shown an accuracy of 86.9% on 746 CT images of chest having COVID-19 related symptoms.

2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
pp. 10-13
Hua Tian

ABSTRACT Introduction: The main purpose of aerobic exercise is to enhance cardiopulmonary endurance, so it is necessary to build cardiopulmonary endurance response models based on different frequencies of aerobic exercise. Objective: To study the cardiopulmonary endurance response of women to different frequencies of aerobic exercise. Methods: Twenty young female desk workers (female teachers and civil servants) who worked out at a fitness club were randomly divided into two groups. Cardiopulmonary function, both before and after 16 weeks of aerobic exercise at different exercise loads, was studied and analyzed. Results: After 16 weeks of aerobic exercise at different exercise loads, all the young women had significantly improved their vital capacity (VC), and their maximum oxygen uptake ability was improved to a certain extent. Compared with the 45-minute aerobic exercise group, the vital capacity (VC)of 90-minute aerobic exercise group was significantly increased (P>0.05). Conclusions: When performed at a consistent frequency level, aerobic exercise with a relatively high exercise load can better develop the body’s respiratory system function. This may be due to deep stimulation of the respiratory system from high-load aerobic exercise, and ultimately to the intensive exercising of lung function. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Federica Fusina ◽  
Filippo Albani ◽  
Serena Crisci ◽  
Alessandro Morandi ◽  
Francesca Tansini ◽  

Abstract Background The comparison of respiratory system compliance (Crs) between COVID and non-COVID ARDS patients has been the object of debate, but few studies have evaluated it when considering applied positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP), which is one of the known determinants of Crs itself. The aim of this study was to compare Crs taking into account the applied PEEP. Methods Two cohorts of patients were created: those with COVID-ARDS and those with non-COVID ARDS. In the whole sample the association between Crs and type of ARDS at different PEEP levels was adjusted for anthropometric and clinical variables. As secondary analyses, patients were matched for predicted functional residual capacity and the same association was assessed. Moreover, the association between Crs and type of ARDS was reassessed at predefined PEEP level of 0, 5, 10, and 15 cmH2O with a propensity score-weighted linear model. Results 367 patients were included in the study, 276 patients with COVID-ARDS and 91 with non-COVID ARDS. The association between Crs and type of ARDS was not significant in both the complete cohorts (p = 0.17) and in the matched cohorts (p = 0.92). This was true also for the propensity score weighted association at PEEP 5, 10 and 15 cmH2O, while it was statistically significant at PEEP 0 (with a median difference of 3 ml/cmH2O, which in our opinion is not clinically significant). Conclusions The compliance of the respiratory system is similar between COVID ARDS and non-COVID ARDS when calculated at the same PEEP level and while taking into account patients’ anthropometric characteristics.

2022 ◽  
Arturas Ziemys

COVID-19 pandemics increased patient hospitalization impacting the hospital operations and patient care beyond COVID-19 patients. Although longitudinal symptom analysis may provide prognostic utility about clinical outcomes and critical hospitalization events of COVID-19 patients, such analysis is still missing. Here, we have analyzed over 10,000 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the Houston Methodist Hospital at the Texas Medical Center from the beginning of pandemics till April of 2020. Our study used statistical and regression analysis over symptoms grouped into symptom groups based on their anatomical locations. Symptom intensity analysis indicated that symptoms peaked at the time of admission and subsided within the first week of hospitalization for most of the patients. Patients surviving the infection (n=9,263), had faster remission rates, usually within the first days of hospitalization compared to sustained symptom for the deceased patient group (n=1,042). The latter had also a longer hospitalization stay and more comorbidities including diabetes, cardiovascular, and kidney disease. Inflammation-associated systemic symptoms (Systemic) such as fever and chills, and lower respiratory system specific symptoms (Lower Respiratory System) such as shortness of breath and pneumonia, were the most informative for the analysis of longitudinal symptom dynamics. Our results suggest that the symptom remission rate could possess prognostic utility in evaluating patient hospitalization stay and clinical outcomes early in hospitalization. We believe knowledge and information about symptom remission rates can be used to improve hospital operations and patient care by using common and relatively easy to process source of information.

2022 ◽  
Vol 66 (6) ◽  
pp. 442-451
S. V. Chepur ◽  
I. I. Alekseeva ◽  
O. O. Vladimirova ◽  
V. A. Myasnikov ◽  
M. A. Tyunin ◽  

Introduction. Verification of histological changes in respiratory system using Syrian (golden) hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) as experimental model is an important task for preclinical studies of drugs intended for prevention and treatment of the novel coronavirus infection COVID-19.The aim of this work was to study pathological changes of pulmonary tissue in SARS-CoV-2 (Coronaviridae: Coronavirinae: Betacoronavirus; Sarbecovirus) experimental infection in Syrian hamsters. Material and methods. Male Syrian hamsters weighting 80–100 g were infected by intranasal administration of culture SARS-CoV-2 at dose 4 × 104 TCID50/ml (TCID is tissue culture infectious dose). Animals were euthanatized on 3, 7 and 14 days after infection, with gravimetric registration. The viral load in lungs was measured using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Right lung and trachea tissues were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and according to Mallory.Results and discussion. The highest viral replicative activity in lungs was determined 3 days after the infection. After 7 days, on a background of the decrease of the viral load in lungs, a pathologically significant increase of the organ’s gravimetric parameters was observed. Within 3 to 14 days post-infection, the lung histologic pattern had been showing the development of inflammation with a succession of infiltrative-proliferative, edematousmacrophagal and fibroblastic changes. It was found that initial changes in respiratory epithelium can proceed without paranecrotic interstitial inflammation, while in the formation of multiple lung parenchyma lesions, damage to the epithelium of bronchioles and acinar ducts can be secondary. The appearance of epithelioid large-cell metaplastic epithelium, forming pseudoacinar structures, was noted as a pathomorphological feature specific to SARS-CoV-2 infection in Syrian hamsters.Conclusion. As a result of the study, the specific features of the pathology of the respiratory system in SARSCoV-2 infected Syrian hamsters were described. These findings are of practical importance as reference data that can be used for preclinical studies to assess the effectiveness of vaccines and potential drugs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Alessandro Ghiani ◽  
Joanna Paderewska ◽  
Swenja Walcher ◽  
Konstantinos Tsitouras ◽  
Claus Neurohr ◽  

AbstractSince critical respiratory muscle workload is a significant determinant of weaning failure, applied mechanical power (MP) during artificial ventilation may serve for readiness testing before proceeding on a spontaneous breathing trial (SBT). Secondary analysis of a prospective, observational study in 130 prolonged ventilated, tracheotomized patients. Calculated MP’s predictive SBT outcome performance was determined using the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), measures derived from k-fold cross-validation (likelihood ratios, Matthew's correlation coefficient [MCC]), and a multivariable binary logistic regression model. Thirty (23.1%) patients failed the SBT, with absolute MP presenting poor discriminatory ability (MCC 0.26; AUROC 0.68, 95%CI [0.59‒0.75], p = 0.002), considerably improved when normalized to lung-thorax compliance (LTCdyn-MP, MCC 0.37; AUROC 0.76, 95%CI [0.68‒0.83], p < 0.001) and mechanical ventilation PaCO2 (so-called power index of the respiratory system [PIrs]: MCC 0.42; AUROC 0.81 [0.73‒0.87], p < 0.001). In the logistic regression analysis, PIrs (OR 1.48 per 1000 cmH2O2/min, 95%CI [1.24‒1.76], p < 0.001) and its components LTCdyn-MP (1.25 per 1000 cmH2O2/min, [1.06‒1.46], p < 0.001) and mechanical ventilation PaCO2 (1.17 [1.06‒1.28], p < 0.001) were independently related to SBT failure. MP normalized to respiratory system compliance may help identify prolonged mechanically ventilated patients ready for spontaneous breathing.

Silvia Bainy Gastal ◽  
Carolina Silveira Mascarenhas ◽  
Leandro Bugoni

Nasal mites of the family Rhinonyssidae are parasites living in the respiratory system of birds. To date there were no record of these mites from representatives of the order Procellariiformes, a numerous grouping of exclusively marine birds that includes albatrosses, petrels, storm-petrels and shearwaters. The paper describes two new species of the genus Rhinonyssus from shearwaters (Procellariidae) found on various shores of Brazil: Rhinonyssus borealis sp. nov. from Calonectris borealis (Cory’s shearwater) and R. procellaricus sp. nov. from Puffinus puffinus (Manx shearwater) and Ardenna gravis (Great shearwater). Both described mites are characterized by a large elliptical body and a relatively large and strongly sclerotized with the well-developed caudal extension. Rhinonyssus borealis sp. nov. and R. procellaricus sp. nov. are similar in their general appearance to each other but differ in the size of idiosoma, shape of podosomal and sternal shields and leg chaetotaxy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Laibin Ren ◽  
Lingwei Wang ◽  
Markus Rehberg ◽  
Tobias Stoeger ◽  
Jianglin Zhang ◽  

Quantum dots (QDs), are one kind of nanoscale semiconductor crystals with specific electronic and optical properties, offering near-infrared mission and chemically active surfaces. Increasing interest for QDs exists in developing theranostics platforms for bioapplications such as imaging, drug delivery and therapy. Here we summarized QDs’ biomedical applications, toxicity, and immunological effects on the respiratory system. Bioapplications of QDs in lung include biomedical imaging, drug delivery, bio-sensing or diagnosis and therapy. Generically, toxic effects of nanoparticles are related to the generation of oxidative stresses with subsequent DNA damage and decreased lung cells viability in vitro and in vivo because of release of toxic metal ions or the features of QDs like its surface charge. Lastly, pulmonary immunological effects of QDs mainly include proinflammatory cytokines release and recruiting innate leukocytes or adaptive T cells.

2022 ◽  
pp. 341-362
Stephen A. Stricker

Syahril M Yusuf

The new virus is now known as the corona virus. Corona virus is a virus that attacks the respiratory system. A disease due to viral infection is called COVID-19. The majority of cases there is a corona virus in Wuhan, China. In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced the corona virus as a pandemic. Pandemic COVID-19 becomes much discussed worldwide. This study aims to look at the impact of social phenomenon with the presence of the corona virus through various media; both print and electronic that led to symbolic violence. The results showed that the symbolic violence is present in a variety of ways with specific objectives.

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