correlation system
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Oleg Testoni ◽  
Sandro Christen ◽  
Sampada Bodkhe ◽  
Andrea Bergamini ◽  
Paolo Ermanni

This work introduces a novel concept of modular, shape-adaptable sandwich panel with a distributed actuation system based on shape memory alloys (SMA). The panel consists of a modular arrangement of rigid cells connected with compliant active joints. Each joint hosts a SMA wire, which can be controlled independently, enabling the panel to achieve multiple shapes and complex curvatures with a single design. A numerical model of the actuators is developed combining the SMA model proposed by Brinson with a finite element model of the compliant joints, and validated against experimental results. Further, a demonstrator of the panel is manufactured and tested implementing four different actuation patterns and measuring the final shapes with a digital image correlation system. The results prove the capability of the proposed concept to achieve both in plane and out-of-plane deformations in the order of millimeters to centimeters, and to reproduce shapes with double curvatures. With the possibility to integrate sensors and additional components inside the core, the proposed shape-adaptable panel can be used to realize smart structures, which might be used for morphing aerodynamic surfaces or reconfigurable space structures.

2021 ◽  

The fatigue damage tolerance of a composite stiffened structure in post-buckling conditions is experimentally investigated in this work. Single-stringer specimens with an initial delamination, artificially created during the manufacturing process, are tested under cyclic compressive load. Six nominally identical specimens are manufactured: two tested under quasi-static load to understand the compressive behavior of the structure and four under fatigue load cycling between pre- and post-buckling conditions at two different maximum loads. During the tests, digital image correlation system and ultrasonic C-scan are adopted to follow the evolution of the out-of-plane displacements and the propagation of the delamination. Depending on the load level, the delamination starts to grow already in the first cycle or after a few thousand cycles, but in both cases the propagation is fast at the beginning, then slows down gradually. The fatigue tests are interrupted after 150,000 cycles and the specimens are subjected to quasi-static compressive load to evaluate the residual strength of the structure.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (17) ◽  
pp. 5088
Duyen Trinh-Duc ◽  
Andrzej Piotrowski ◽  
Cezary Ajdukiewicz ◽  
Piotr Woyciechowski ◽  
Marcin Gajewski

Concretes with dispersed reinforcement are increasingly used in structural engineering. The basic source of knowledge on their application and design are the Model-Code 2010 guidelines. These guidelines, however, apply mainly to steel rebar reinforcement and are not fully sufficient in the analysis of the load-bearing capacity of elements made of concrete with dispersed reinforcement. Therefore, scientific research in this field is carried out continuously. The main goal of our work is to provide experimental data for the calibration of constitutive models of the cracking mechanics of concrete with reinforcement in the form of steel and polypropylene fibers. This article shows the possibility of using the digital image correlation system (DIC) to achieve this goal. The method of sample preparation and the method of conducting the tests were modeled on the recommendations contained in the PN-EN 14651: 2007 standard. The tests were carried out on prismatic elements with a notch loaded in a three-point bending setup. The results of standard strength tests are presented in the form of column graphs and tables. As an extension, the results of calculations of energy dissipated in fracture process are given. Moreover, the experimentally obtained graphs of the relationship between the force, displacement and crack opening were presented, which were supplemented with the images of crack development obtained with the use of DIC. The development of the crack net is characterized not only qualitatively but also quantitatively as a function of deflection or crack mouth opening displacement. Conclusions concerning the adopted research methodology and the tested materials are presented at the end of the article.

2021 ◽  
Vol 71 (1) ◽  
pp. 61-78
Hagara Martin ◽  
Pástor Miroslav

Abstract Understanding the levels of residual stresses in the material is very important in predicting the service life of structural elements. One of the most widely used techniques to quantify them is the drilling method, where a small hole is milled in the structure. If the residual stresses are present, stress redistribution will occur, resulting in deformation of the hole surroundings. Nowadays, there is an effort to replace the conventionally used strain gauges, i.e. special strain gauge rosettes, with full-field optical experimental techniques. This paper deals with analysing the possibilities of measuring the relieved strains/stresses with a unique drilling/measuring device, which, unlike other non-commercial measuring systems, uses the moving digital image correlation (DIC) system. Since correlation systems do not tend to move during operation, an analysis was performed describing the effect of changing the position of the single and stereo camera correlation systems on the quality of the results of the strain/stress analysis performed in the vicinity of the milled hole. The conclusion from the analyses performed is that there is no significant accumulation of correlation errors during measurement. Therefore, the information on the magnitudes of the strains/stresses relieved obtained by the moving DIC system can be used to quantify the residual stresses with an expected error corresponding to the sensitivity of this full-field optical experimental technique.

Measurement ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 109867
Krzysztof ACHTENBERG ◽  
Carmine CIOFI ◽  
Graziella SCANDURRA ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. 103-108
László Huzsvai ◽  
Péter Fejér ◽  
Árpád Illés ◽  
Csaba Bojtor ◽  
Csilla Bojté ◽  

Processing large amounts of data provided by automated analytical equipment requires carefulness. Most mathematical and statistical methods have strict application conditions. Most of these methods are based on eigenvalue calculations and require variables to be correlated in groups. If this condition is not met, the most popular multivariate methods cannot be used. The best procedure for such testing is the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test for Sampling Adequacy. Two databases were examined using the KMO test. One of them resulted from the sweet corn measured in the scone of the study, while the other from the 1979 book of János Sváb. For both databases, MSA (measures sampling adequacy) was well below the critical value, thus they are not suitable e.g. for principal component analysis. In both databases, the values of the partial correlation coefficients were much higher than Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Often the signs of partial coefficients did not match the signs of linear correlation coefficients. One of the main reasons for this is that the correlation between the variables is non-linear. Another reason is that control variables have a non-linear effect on a given variable. In such cases, classical methods should be disregarded and expert models better suited to the problem should be chosen in order to analyse the correlation system.

2021 ◽  
Vol 139 (5) ◽  
pp. 539-543
T. Domański ◽  
M. Kubiak ◽  
W. Piekarska ◽  
Z. Saternus

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