Nutritional Values
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2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Yanxian Li ◽  
Karina Gajardo ◽  
Alexander Jaramillo-Torres ◽  
Trond M. Kortner ◽  
Åshild Krogdahl

Abstract Background Being part of fish's natural diets, insects have become a practical alternative feed ingredient for aquaculture. While nutritional values of insects have been extensively studied in various fish species, their impact on the fish microbiota remains to be fully explored. In an 8-week freshwater feeding trial, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed either a commercially relevant reference diet or an insect meal diet wherein black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal comprised 60% of total ingredients. Microbiota of digesta and mucosa origin from the proximal and distal intestine were collected and profiled along with feed and water samples. Results The insect meal diet markedly modulated the salmon intestinal microbiota. Salmon fed the insect meal diet showed similar or lower alpha-diversity indices in the digesta but higher alpha-diversity indices in the mucosa. A group of bacterial genera, dominated by members of the Bacillaceae family, was enriched in salmon fed the insect meal diet, which confirms our previous findings in a seawater feeding trial. We also found that microbiota in the intestine closely resembled that of the feeds but was distinct from the water microbiota. Notably, bacterial genera associated with the diet effects were also present in the feeds. Conclusions We conclude that salmon fed the insect meal diets show consistent changes in the intestinal microbiota. The next challenge is to evaluate the extent to which these alterations are attributable to feed microbiota and dietary nutrients, and what these changes mean for fish physiology and health.

Zeying Huang ◽  
Haijun Li ◽  
Jiazhang Huang

The nutrition facts table is a nutrition labeling tool designed to inform consumers of food nutritional contents and enable them to make healthier choices by comparing the nutritional values of similar foods. However, its adoption level is considerably low in China. This study employed the Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) algorithm to explore the factors associated with respondents’ adoption of nutrition facts table to compare the nutritional values of similar foods. Data were gathered through a nationally representative online survey of 1500 samples. Results suggested that consumers’ comprehension of the nutrition facts table was a direct explanatory factor for its use. The usage was also indirectly explained by people’s nutrition knowledge, the usage of nutrition facts table by their relatives and friends, and their focus on a healthy diet. Therefore, to increase the use of nutrition facts table by Chinese consumers, the first consideration should be given to enhancing consumers’ comprehension of the labeling

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Amnah Mohammed Alsuhaibani ◽  
Amal Nassir Alkuraieef ◽  
Moneera Othman Aljobair ◽  
Amal Hassan Alshawi

Background. Biscuits are consumed by all of society in the world. Incorporation of different ratios of quinoa flour into wheat flour for the production of biscuits is needed for the production of functional foods. Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the incorporation of 12.5% or 25% quinoa flour into biscuit production, evaluate rheological and sensory characteristics, and investigate the effect of the consumption of 20% cooked biscuits on diabetic rats. Design. The gross chemical composition, total carotenoids, phenolic and flavonoids of wheat flour and quinoa flour, and the rheological properties of the control, 12.5% quinoa, and 25% quinoa biscuit dough were determined. The effects of consumption of 12.5% quinoa and 25% quinoa biscuits on diabetic rats were investigated. Results. Quinoa flour had significantly higher levels of the gross chemical composition except for carbohydrate and increased phenolic compound and flavonoids content than those in wheat flour. Increasing the amount of quinoa flour in the biscuits could increase the farinograph and extensograph values of the dough. Biological results showed that the highest improvement in nutritional values appeared in the diabetic rat group, which consumed 25% quinoa biscuit for 60 days. The consumption of 12.5% quinoa biscuit and 25% quinoa biscuit showed a decline in blood glycosylated hemoglobin and glucose and an elevation in insulin levels compared with the positive control diabetic rat group. Discussion and Conclusion. It is encouraging to replace wheat flour with quinoa flour in biscuit manufacturing owing to positive effects on both the technological properties and sensory evaluation of biscuits. The increase of quinoa flour up to 25% had favorable nutritional values and hypoglycemic effects.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 19-31
Valentín Zárate ◽  
Jesica R. Mufari ◽  
Lucía G. Abalos Luna ◽  
Daniel P. Villarreal ◽  
Juan M. Busso

Very little information is available to zoo managers on the nutritional preferences of the lesser anteater, a highly specialized predator. By studying lesser anteater feeding behavior, we expect to contribute to improved management decisions and individual welfare experiences. We studied the response of zoo-housed lesser anteaters (n = 7) to feeders with live ants (Acromyrmex lundi) and termites (Cortaritermes fulviceps), and we also evaluated the nutritional values of these prey. We individually evaluated each lesser anteater (3 sessions), recording activities by camera. We ground insect samples into a coarse meal and evaluated in vitro biochemical parameters (humidity, lipids proteins, ash, and carbohydrates). Lesser anteaters spent more time with termites than with ants and consumed more termites. Ant meal presented a higher protein and lipid content than termite meal (35.28 ± 0.18% vs. 18.19 ± 0.34% and 16.95 ± 0.13% vs. 6.54 ± 0.31%, respectively), and carbohydrate digestibility was higher in termites. These findings indicate an association between the level of insect consumption and nutritional and digestibility values. This is the first exploration of lesser anteater responses to the presence of social insects in feeders and may serve to guide the study of food preferences in captivity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (6) ◽  
Siti Nurhadia ◽  
Hermanto Hermanto ◽  
Suwarjoyowirayatno Suwarjoyowirayatno

ABSTRACTThis study aimed to determine the effect of golden apple snail and chicken meat substitution on the organoleptic characteristics and nutritional values of chicken nuggets. This study used a single factor completely randomized design (CRD), with five levels of treatment, namely P0 (0% golden apple snail meat: 50% chicken meat: 50% wheat flour), P1 (45% golden apple snail meat: 5% chicken meat: 50% flour), P2 (40% golden apple snail meat: 10% chicken meat: 50% flour), P3 (35% golden apple snail meat: 15% chicken meat: 50% flour), and P4 (30% golden apple snail meat: 52% chicken meat: 50% flour). Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The results show that the substitution treatment of golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata l.) and chicken meat had a very significant effect on increasing color, taste, aroma, and texture. The P1 treatment (45% golden apple snail meat; 5% chicken meat and 50% wheat flour) was the most preferred treatment by panelists with preference scores of color, aroma, texture, and taste reached 3.74 (like), 3.93 (like), 3.68 (like), and 3.68 (like), respectively. Meanwhile, the analysis of the nutritional values shows that the selected treatment contained 30.68% water, 2.44% ash, 10.24% fat, 9.04% protein, and 47.6% carbohydrates. Based on the standard of SNI 01-6638-2002, the golden apple snail and chicken meat nuggets met the quality standards on water, ash, and protein contents.Keywords: golden apple snail meat, chicken meat, nuggets.ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh subtitusi keong mas dan daging ayam terhadap karakteristik organoleptik dan nilai gizi pada pembuatan nugget. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak lengkap (RAL) faktor tunggal, dengan lima Perlakuan P0 (daging keong mas 0% : daging ayam 50% : tepung terigu 50%), P1 (daging keong mas 45% : daging ayam 5% : tepung terigu 50%), P2 (daging keong mas 40% : daging ayam 10% : tepung terigu 50%), P3 (daging keong mas 35% : daging ayam 15% : tepung terigu 50%) dan P4 (daging keong mas 30% : daging ayam 52% : tepung terigu 50%). Data dianalisis menggunakan Analysis of Varian (ANOVA). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan Substitusi daging keong mas (pomacea canaliculata l.) dan daging ayam berpengaruh sangat nyata terhadap peningkatan warna, rasa, aroma dan tekstur.. Perlakuan P1 (daging keong mas 45%; daging ayam 5% dan tepung terigu 50%) merupakan perlakuan yang paling disukai panelis dengan skor penilaian kesukaan terhadap warna, aroma, tekstur dan rasa berturut-turut sebesar 3,74 (suka), 3,93 (suka), 3,68 (suka), 3,68 (suka), sedangkan berdasarkan analisis nilai gizi meliputi kadar air, abu, lemak, protein dan karbohidrat berturut-turut sebesar 30,68%, 2,44%, 10,24%, 9,04% dan 47,6%. Berdasarkan standar mutu SNI 01-6638-2002 produk nugget daging keong mas dan daging ayam telah memenuhi standar mutu pada kadar air, kadar abu, dan kadar protein. Sedangkan kadar lemak dan kadar karbohidrat belum memenuhi standar mutu SNI 01-6638-2002Kata kunci: daging keong mas, daging ayam, nugget.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (6) ◽  
Ayuh Firlana ◽  
La Karimuna ◽  
Muhammad Syukri Sadimantara

ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to determine the effect of the formulation of brown rice (Oryza nivaraL) flour and bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L) flour on the organoleptic and nutritional values of cookies as a snack for diabetics. This study was arranged based on a completely randomized design (CRD). This study used five treatments, namely brown rice flour: bitter gourd flour A0 (100%: 0%), A1 (97%: 3%), A2 (94%: 6%), A3 (91%: 9%), and A4 (88% : 12%). The data were analyzed using analysis of variances (ANOVA) and if it had a significant effect on the observed variables, then Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was conducted at a 95% confidence level (α=0.05). The results showed that the most preferred product was found in A2 treatment with organoleptic scores of color, texture, taste, and aroma reached 3.61 (like), 3.70 (like), 3.29 (like), and 3.57 (like), respectively. The nutritional value of cookies produced in A2 treatment shows that it has 3.30% water, 0.81% ash, 32.54% fat, 7.76% protein, and 18.20% glucose. The brown rice and bitter gourd cookies products met the national quality standards for water, ash, and protein contents.Keywords: brown rice, bitter gourd, cookies, snack, proximate value.ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk pengaruh formulasi tepung beras merah (Oryza nivaraL) dan tepung buah pare (Momordica charantia L) terhadap nilai organoleptik dan nilai gizi cookies sebagai makanan selingan pada penderita diabetes. Penelitian ini disusun berdasarkan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL). Penelitian ini menggunakan lima perlakuan yang yaitu Tepung beras merah : Tepung Buah Pare A0 (Tepung 100 % : 0%), A1 (97% : 3 %), A2 (94%: 6%), A3 (91%: 9%), A4 (88% : 12%). Data dianalisis menggunakan analysis of variances (ANOVA) dan apabila berpengaruh nyata terhadap variabel pengamatan, maka dilakukan uji duncan’s multiple range Test (DMRT) pada taraf kepercayaan 95% (α=0,05). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penilaian organoleptik terhadap cookies dengan penambahan beras merah (Oryza nivara L) dan buah pare (Momordica charantia L) yang disukai panelis terdapat pada perlakuan A2 dengan skor organoleptik warna 3,61 (suka), organoleptik tekstur 3,70 (suka), organoleptik rasa 3,29 (suka), organoleptik aroma 3,57(suka). Nilai gizi cookies yang dihasilkan pada perlakuan A2 mengandung kadar air sebesar 3.30%, kadar abu sebesar 0,81%, kadar lemak sebesar 32,54 %, kadar protein 7,76%, kadar glukosa sebesar 18,20%. Berdasarkan standar mutu SNI cookies bahwa produk cookies beras merah dan buah pare sudah memenuhi standar mutu SNI untuk kadar air, kadar abu, dan kadar protein.Kata kunci : beras merah, buah pare, cookies, makanan selingan, nilai proksimat.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1036-1054
Mamta Bohra ◽  
Amit Visen

Flowers are associated with human life since time immemorial. Beside aesthetic beauty, several flowers are used for edible purpose viz., rose, marigold, calendula, hibiscus, hollyhock, carnation, chrysanthemum, nasturtium, lotus, cosmos and pansies etc. These flowers have medicinal as well as nutritional values and are rich source of vitamins, antioxidants and mineral elements. The flowers are enriched with various pigments viz., chlorophyll, flavonoids, xanthophylls, carotenoids, betalains and anthocyanin that are generally used in coloring food, beverage, and textile and paper industries. Edible flowers have anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antimicrobial and antimutagenic properties too. The flowers are used as vegetables and other purpose since time immemorial, however, flowers for supplementary health products is comparatively a new concept and therefore needs further research to utilize flowers as nutraceuticals.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 284-291
Madhushree Das Sarma

Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) is a multifarious beneficial tree and widely cultivated in the tropical and subtropical regions all over the world. All parts of this plants are edible and used as a plentiful source of phytochemicals with high nutritional values. Since antiquity, this plant was recognized as a panacea for the treatment of several ailments in ethnomedicinal system. In last few decades, this fact is further reconfirmed by various scientific research works in which the plant was found to show broad spectrum of biological activities including antioxidant, anti-inammatory, antiurolithic, antimicrobial, anangesic, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antiproliferative, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, etc. Different parts of this plant exhibited significant inhibitory activity against a variety of cancer cells at moderate to low concentrations and also possess low toxicity in normal cells. This review mainly focuses a brief overview on the anticancer profile of this wonderful tree.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 63-70
Khalid Ismail Saleem ◽  
Khaleda Haji Abdullah ◽  
Karvan Faraj Saadallah ◽  
Hilbin Ibrahim Abdullah ◽  
Rand Omar Khalo

The preferred livelihood assets for meat and nutritious milk in thousands villages of Kurdistan rejoin/Iraq are sheep and goats. They generally rely on free roaming in rangeland during the growing seasons. In order to maintain their livestock during the scarcity of forages at winter seasons, the leaves and twigs of (Quercus aegilops, Q. infectoria and Q. libani) are harvested and dried as (dry leaf faggots) at autumn season to use as major substitute of feed. This study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional values of those three oaks species’ leaves at the same time of collecting period. Gara Mountains were chosen due to the wide presence of all three species. Leaves samples were collected at late September 2015 at elevation about 1250 MASL. The results have shown differences in chemical composition. Q. libani recorded higher content of dry matter (DM), ash and crude protein (CP), and lower content of crud fiber (CF). Higher content of ether extract (EE) was recorded in both Q. aegilops and Q. libani. The higher content of nitrogen free extract (NFE) and potassium (K) were recorded in Q. infectoria. While Q. aegilops recorded higher (CF) content. All Quercus species can be used as alternative feed substitute for small ruminant especially with some additives (such as salt, vitamin, and water), but more nutritive value was Q. libani then Q. infectoria followed by Q. aegilops. Therefore, the priority should be for Q. libani in foremost followed by Q. infectoria when dry leaves faggot were made.

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