three point bending
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2022 ◽  
Vol 134 ◽  
pp. 104060
Vuong Nguyen-Van ◽  
Niranjan Kumar Choudhry ◽  
Biranchi Panda ◽  
H. Nguyen-Xuan ◽  
Phuong Tran

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Christopher J. Stubbs ◽  
Ryan Larson ◽  
Douglas D. Cook

AbstractThe maize (Zea mays) stem is a biological structure that must balance both biotic and structural load bearing duties. These competing requirements are particularly relevant in the design of new bioenergy crops. Although increased stem digestibility is typically associated with a lower structural strength and higher propensity for lodging, with the right balance between structural and biological activities it may be possible to design crops that are high-yielding and have digestible biomass. This study investigates the hypothesis that geometric factors are much more influential in determining structural strength than tissue properties. To study these influences, both physical and in silico experiments were used. First, maize stems were tested in three-point bending. Specimen-specific finite element models were created based on x-ray computed tomography scans. Models were validated by comparison with experimental data. Sensitivity analyses were used to assess the influence of structural parameters such as geometric and material properties. As hypothesized, geometry was found to have a much stronger influence on structural stability than material properties. This information reinforces the notion that deficiencies in tissue strength could be offset by manipulation of stalk morphology, thus allowing the creation of stalks which are both resilient and digestible.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 626
Ireneusz Marzec ◽  
Jerzy Bobiński

Results of the numerical simulations of the size effect phenomenon for concrete in comparison with experimental data are presented. In-plane geometrically similar notched and unnotched beams under three-point bending are analyzed. EXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) with a cohesive softening law is used. Comprehensive parametric study with the respect to the tensile strength and the initial fracture energy is performed. Sensitivity of the results with respect to the material parameters and the specimen geometry is investigated. Three different softening laws are examined. First, a bilinear softening definition is utilized. Then, an exponential curve is taken. Finally, a rational Bezier curve is tested. An ambiguity in choosing material parameters and softening curve definitions is discussed. Numerical results are compared with experimental outcomes recently reported in the literature. Two error measures are defined and used to quantitatively assess calculated maximum forces (nominal strengths) in comparison with experimental values as a primary criterion. In addition, the force—displacement curves are also analyzed. It is shown that all softening curves produce results consistent with the experimental data. Moreover, with different softening laws assumed, different initial fracture energies should be taken to obtain proper results.

2022 ◽  
pp. 136943322110273
Lingzhu Zhou ◽  
Yu Zheng ◽  
Linsheng Huo ◽  
Yuxiao Ye ◽  
Xiaolu Wang ◽  

This paper aims to study the fracture behaviors of high-volume fly ash-self-compacting concrete (HVFA-SCC) mixed with seawater and sea-sand (SWSS) or freshwater and river sand (FWRS). Three-point bending test were performed on 24 notched beams fabricated with varying in replacement ratio of fly ash (0%, 30%, 50%, and 70%) and the type of water and sand (SWSS and FWRS). The initial and unstable fracture toughness of these test specimens are determined by the double- K fracture model. The effect of fly ash replacement ratio and type of water and sand on the fracture parameters is analyzed and discussed. In addition, the cohesive fracture toughness of all the test specimens is calculated by using Gauss–Chebyshev integral method and the weight function method based on the bilinear tensile softening curve given in CEP-FIP Model Code. A comparison of fracture toughness parameters of determined from the experimental approach and analytical approaches is presented in these SCC specimens. Results show that SCC mixed with SWSS replacing FWRS can improve the unstable fracture toughness and fracture energy, and decrease its brittleness behavior. The cohesive fracture toughness of SWSS-SCC specimens is underestimated by these analytical methods based on the tensile softening curve given in CEP-FIP Model Code.

2022 ◽  
Qingkai Wang ◽  
Zhaoquan Li ◽  
Peng Lu ◽  
Yigang Xu ◽  
Zhijun Li

Abstract. A total of 25 flexural and 55 uniaxial compressive strength tests were conducted using landfast sea ice samples collected in the Prydz Bay. Three-point bending tests were performed at ice temperatures of −12 to −3 °C with force applied vertically to original ice surface, and compressive tests were performed at −3 °C with a strain-rate level of 10−6–10−2 s−1 in the directions vertical and horizontal to ice surface. Judging from crystal structure, the ice samples were divided into congelation ice, snow ice, and a mixture of the these two. The results of congelation ice showed that the flexural strength had a decreasing trend depending on porosity rather than brine volume, based on which a mathematical equation was established to estimate flexural strength. Both flexural strength and effective modulus increased with increasing platelet spacing. The uniaxial compressive strength increased and decreased with strain rate below and above the critical regime, respectively, which is 8.0 × 10−4–1.5 × 10−3 s−1 for vertically loaded samples and 2.0 × 10−3–3.0 × 10−3 s−1 for horizontally loaded samples. A drop off in compressive strength was shown with increasing sea ice porosity. Consequently, a model was developed to depict the combined effects of porosity and strain rate on compressive strength in both ductile and brittle regimes. The mechanical strength of mixed ice was lower than congelation ice, and that of snow ice was much weaker. To provide a safe guide for the transportation of goods on landfast sea ice in the Prydz Bay, the bearing capacity of the ice cover is estimated with the lower and upper envelopes of flexural strength and effective modulus, respectively, which turned out to be a function of sea ice porosity.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 459
Chiara D’Erme ◽  
Walter Remo Caseri ◽  
Maria Laura Santarelli

The use of nanocellulose in traditional lime-based mortars is a promising solution for green buildings in the frame of limiting the CO2 emissions resulting from Portland Cement production. The influence of the fibrillated cellulose (FC) on lime pastes and lime-based mortars was studied incorporating FC at dosages of 0%, 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3wt% by weight of binder. The lime pastes were subjected to thermal and nitrogen gas sorption analyses to understand if FC affects the formation of hydraulic compounds and the mesoporosities volume and distribution. The setting and early hydration of the mortars were studied with isothermal calorimetry. The mechanical performances were investigated with compressive and three-point-bending tests. Furthermore, fragments resulting from the mechanical tests were microscopically studied to understand the reinforcement mechanism of the fibres. It was found that 0.3wt% of FC enhances the flexural and compressive strengths respectively by 57% and 44% while the crack propagation after the material failure is not affected.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 437
Daming Nie ◽  
Ruilong Du ◽  
Pu Zhang ◽  
Fangyan Shen ◽  
Jason Gu ◽  

Lightweight parts manufactured by metal selective laser melting (SLM) are widely applied in machinery industries because of their high specific strength, good energy absorption effect, and complex shape that are difficult to form by mechanical machining. These samples often serve in three-dimensional stress states. However, previous publications mainly focused on the unidirectional tensile/compressive properties of the samples. In this paper, AlMgSc samples with different geometric parameters were prepared by the SLM process, and the variation of force and microstructure during three-point bending were systematically investigated. The results demonstrate that the deformation resistance of these samples has good continuity without mutation in bending, even for brittle materials; the bending force-displacement curves exhibit representative variation stages during the entire bending process; the equivalent bending strength deduced from free bending formula is not applicable when compactability is less than 67%. The variations of grain orientation and size of the three representative bending layers also show regularity.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 395
Michał Słonina ◽  
Dorota Dziurka ◽  
Marta Molińska-Glura ◽  
Jerzy Smardzewski

The main objective of the study was to determine the effect of impregnation of the paper core with acetylated starch on the mechanical properties and absorbed energy in the three-point bending test of wood-based honeycomb panels under varying temperatures and relative air humidity conditions. Nearly six hundred beams in various combinations, three types of facings, three core cells geometries, and two paper thicknesses were tested. The experiment results and their statistical analysis prove a significant relationship between the impregnation of paper with modified starch and mechanical properties. The most effective in absorbing energy, the honeycomb panels, consisted of a core with a wall thickness of 0.25 mm and a particleboard facing.

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