Road Space
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2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 107
Author(s):  
Qiming Ye ◽  
Yuxiang Feng ◽  
Eduardo Candela ◽  
Jose Escribano Macias ◽  
Marc Stettler ◽  
...  

Complete streets scheme makes seminal contributions to securing the basic public right-of-way (ROW), improving road safety, and maintaining high traffic efficiency for all modes of commute. However, such a popular street design paradigm also faces endogenous pressures like the appeal to a more balanced ROW for non-vehicular users. In addition, the deployment of Autonomous Vehicle (AV) mobility is likely to challenge the conventional use of the street space as well as this scheme. Previous studies have invented automated control techniques for specific road management issues, such as traffic light control and lane management. Whereas models and algorithms that dynamically calibrate the ROW of road space corresponding to travel demands and place-making requirements still represent a research gap. This study proposes a novel optimal control method that decides the ROW of road space assigned to driveways and sidewalks in real-time. To solve this optimal control task, a reinforcement learning method is introduced that employs a microscopic traffic simulator, namely SUMO, as its environment. The model was trained for 150 episodes using a four-legged intersection and joint AVs-pedestrian travel demands of a day. Results evidenced the effectiveness of the model in both symmetric and asymmetric road settings. After being trained by 150 episodes, our proposed model significantly increased its comprehensive reward of both pedestrians and vehicular traffic efficiency and sidewalk ratio by 10.39%. Decisions on the balanced ROW are optimised as 90.16% of the edges decrease the driveways supply and raise sidewalk shares by approximately 9%. Moreover, during 18.22% of the tested time slots, a lane-width equivalent space is shifted from driveways to sidewalks, minimising the travel costs for both an AV fleet and pedestrians. Our study primarily contributes to the modelling architecture and algorithms concerning centralised and real-time ROW management. Prospective applications out of this method are likely to facilitate AV mobility-oriented road management and pedestrian-friendly street space design in the near future.


2021 ◽  
Vol 67 (4) ◽  
pp. 21-24
Author(s):  
Andraž Hudoklin ◽  
Luka Mladenovič ◽  
Mojca Balant ◽  
Tom Rye

The paper presents results of an analysis of measures implemented in various European cities that have been effective in reducing the share of trips by car and increasing the shares of active mobility and public transportation. Ten cities with a significant modal shift from cars to public transportation and/or active mobility in a period of several years were analysed. For each city, an interview was conducted with a local expert. The questions focused on the reasons for successful changes in travel habits and the existence and relevance of the SUMP in bringing about these changes. The results show that all cities analysed have some form of SUMP, and many have additional, more specific documents. Most cities have been developing these documents and implementing the measures in them for many years. Furthermore, the modal shift was always the result of a combination of several push and pull measures. Cities implemented restrictive measures for cars as well as improved conditions for alternative modes of mobility and often focused on road space transformation.


2021 ◽  
Vol 67 (4) ◽  
pp. 21-24
Author(s):  
Andraž Hudoklin ◽  
Luka Mladenovič ◽  
Mojca Balant ◽  
Tom Rye

The paper presents results of an analysis of measures implemented in various European cities that have been effective in reducing the share of trips by car and increasing the shares of active mobility and public transportation. Ten cities with a significant modal shift from cars to public transportation and/or active mobility in a period of several years were analysed. For each city, an interview was conducted with a local expert. The questions focused on the reasons for successful changes in travel habits and the existence and relevance of the SUMP in bringing about these changes. The results show that all cities analysed have some form of SUMP, and many have additional, more specific documents. Most cities have been developing these documents and implementing the measures in them for many years. Furthermore, the modal shift was always the result of a combination of several push and pull measures. Cities implemented restrictive measures for cars as well as improved conditions for alternative modes of mobility and often focused on road space transformation.


Author(s):  
Raja Sekhar Mamillapalli ◽  
Srihari Vedartham

Urban disasters, Traffic is unavoidable due to increase in density of vehicles without adding more road space to the city. This is demanding for more flyovers, grade separators to avoid congestion at the junctions. Hyderabad is congesting with many junctions adding up to the heavy traffic and waiting time, energy, fuel and polluting the city with noise and air pollution. For economic benefit and decongestion of major junctions, Flyovers were planned and constructed. To meet this demand in Gachibowli and Hi-Tech city area, a flyover was constructed by MVR Infra projects near biodiversity junction. The present paper describes the incident of fatal accident taken place on November 23, 2019. The study also reveals aftermath actions taken by the government of Telangana and suggested various sections in the Indian penal codes for such incidents.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Jean Beetham

<p>This study explored the extent to which road space reallocation from on-street parking to an arterial cycle way may be warranted between Wellington city’s southern suburbs and city centre. Latent demand and preferences for transport cycling were assessed using an intentional behaviour change model, and a study of the economic contribution of the on-street parking on Tory Street to adjacent businesses was undertaken.  This study identified a significant latent demand for transport cycling in Wellington. Transport cycling is suppressed primarily because of a perceived lack of safety. Road safety improvements were identified as the key change required to encourage the uptake of transport cycling. In particular, people in Wellington desire a continuous and connected network of separated and dedicated cycle ways. Potential cyclists indicated that they would be likely to cycle for transport more often if a cycle path connecting Wellington’s southern suburbs and city centre was constructed. Contrary to what might be expected, it appears that the majority of people would support the removal of some on-street parking to provide for this cycle way. Additionally, this study found that the contribution of those who use on-street parking to adjacent retail vitality on Tory Street is minor, compared to the contribution of those who do not require parking and those who use off-street parking.  This research concludes that, considering Wellington’s context and policy, the reallocation of road space from on-street parking to an arterial cycle way between Wellington’s southern suburbs and city centre may well be warranted.</p>


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Jean Beetham

<p>This study explored the extent to which road space reallocation from on-street parking to an arterial cycle way may be warranted between Wellington city’s southern suburbs and city centre. Latent demand and preferences for transport cycling were assessed using an intentional behaviour change model, and a study of the economic contribution of the on-street parking on Tory Street to adjacent businesses was undertaken.  This study identified a significant latent demand for transport cycling in Wellington. Transport cycling is suppressed primarily because of a perceived lack of safety. Road safety improvements were identified as the key change required to encourage the uptake of transport cycling. In particular, people in Wellington desire a continuous and connected network of separated and dedicated cycle ways. Potential cyclists indicated that they would be likely to cycle for transport more often if a cycle path connecting Wellington’s southern suburbs and city centre was constructed. Contrary to what might be expected, it appears that the majority of people would support the removal of some on-street parking to provide for this cycle way. Additionally, this study found that the contribution of those who use on-street parking to adjacent retail vitality on Tory Street is minor, compared to the contribution of those who do not require parking and those who use off-street parking.  This research concludes that, considering Wellington’s context and policy, the reallocation of road space from on-street parking to an arterial cycle way between Wellington’s southern suburbs and city centre may well be warranted.</p>


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Henk-Jan Dekker

In an effort to fight climate change, many cities try to boost their cycling levels. They often look towards the Dutch for guidance. However, historians have only begun to uncover how and why the Netherlands became the premier cycling country of the world. Why were Dutch cyclists so successful in their fight for a place on the road? Cycling Pathways: The Politics and Governance of Dutch Cycling Infrastructure, 1920-2020 explores the long political struggle that culminated in today’s high cycling levels. Delving into the archives, it uncovers the important role of social movements and shows in detail how these interacted with national, provincial, and urban engineers and policymakers to govern the distribution of road space and construction of cycling infrastructure. It discusses a wide range of topics, ranging from activists to engineering committees, from urban commuters to recreational cyclists and from the early 1900s to today in order to uncover the long and all-but-forgotten history of Dutch cycling governance.


CONVERTER ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 519-526
Author(s):  
Gewei Zheng, Yang Xu

Nowadays, in the special period of post-epidemic era and industry 4.0, "community" as an important part of the city has become the focus of attention of all sectors of society. Roadways are closely related to the life of the community residents in the space composition of the old communities, which profoundly affects the daily communication and life of the residents living in the community, so the renewal and design of residential roadways in old communities has been a central issue to drive the renovation of communities and revitalize cities. In this paper, based on the theory of urban catalysts, the residential roadways of Sanyi Village in Tanhualin Community in Wuhan are studied from the aspects of the introduction of catalysts, spatial linkage, guidance and follow-up to explore how to integrate the catalysts theory to improve the quality of the community within the limited roadway space of the old communities


Author(s):  
Antoni Wontorczyk ◽  
Stanislaw Gaca

Drivers’ incorrect perception and interpretation of the road space are among reasons for human errors. Proper road markings are elements improving perception of road space. Their effectiveness relies on traffic participants receiving the provided information correctly. The range of signs used is constantly expanding and unusual situations in traffic require use of non-standard signs or an unusual combination of existing standard signs. The aim of this study was to explore the level of comprehensibility of four different types of non-standard signs. The relationship between the level of comprehensibility of these signs and personality traits of the drivers was also studied. A total of 369 drivers were tested using a questionnaire to analyze the traffic signs comprehensibility and Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). The obtained results indicate that symbolic signs, unlike symbolic and text ones, are much better comprehended by drivers. Men comprehend the significance of non-standard symbolic regulatory signs better than women. Higher level of comprehensibility of symbolic and text regulatory signs is shown by older, better educated drivers and professional drivers. The study found there is a link between personality traits of the driver and the comprehensibility of symbolic regulatory signs.


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