social protection
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ximena Moreno ◽  
Jean Gajardo ◽  
María José Monsalves

Abstract Background Different factors are associated with late life depression and diagnosis, including gender. It has also been reported that depression among older people is underdiagnosed. As a result, the mental health needs of this group are insufficiently met. The aim of this study was to explore gender differences in the factors associated with positive screens for depression and self-reported diagnosis among older adults in Chile. Methods Data from 3786 older adults who participated in the Social Protection Survey in 2016 were analysed. PHQ-9 was used to identify screen-positive cases. Self-reported diagnosis of depression was used to determine the proportion of people with a screen-positive result who had received a diagnosis of depression. Logistic regression models were used to determine sociodemographic and health factors associated with depression and underdiagnosis in older men and women. Results The prevalence of a screen-positive result was 20.91% (5.83% major depressive disorder) among men, and 36.38% (12.43% major depressive disorder) among women. 18.77% of men and 34.11% of women with a positive depression screening had received a diagnosis. More educated men were more likely to receive a diagnosis. Older age was associated with a lower probability of diagnosis among older women. Conclusions Our results suggest that depressive disorders are undiagnosed in a high proportion of older adults in Chile. Gender is a relevant factor in the underdiagnosis of depression in this group. Further research is needed to understand the factors involved in these gaps, to improve detection and provide timely support and treatment.


Author(s):  
В.В. Чайковская ◽  
Т.И. Вялых ◽  
А.В. Царенко ◽  
Н.Н. Величко ◽  
В.А. Толстых ◽  
...  

Исследование посвящено вопросам организации медицинского и социального обслуживания переселенцев пожилого возраста на уровне первичной медико-санитарной помощи (ПМСП) на Украине, определению основных задач и особенностей организации и предоставления им паллиативной и хосписной помощи (ПХП) в условиях пандемии COVID-19. По результатам социологического исследования с использованием методов опроса, экспертных оценок были проанализированы социально-психологические характеристики переселенцев пожилого возраста, особенностей их социальной адаптации, финансирования и медико-социального обслуживания. Были определены пути улучшения организации амбулаторной помощи переселенцам старшего возраста на уровне ПМСП, включающие структурную модернизацию и оптимизацию организационного обеспечения. Внедрение доступных и экономически обоснованных подходов позволяет усилить взаимодействие специалистов учреждений здравоохранения и социальной защиты, оптимизировать соблюдение стандартов и принципов медицинской помощи. В рамках организации ПХП базовыми являются европейские подходы формирования стратегии непрерывности предоставления паллиативной помощи в условиях пандемии COVID-19. Внедрение предлагаемых подходов в организации медицинской и социальной помощи на уровне амбулаторий ПМСП и обеспечение доступной ПХП являются актуальными для переселенцев пожилого возраста, находящихся в группе повышенного риска при пандемии COVID-19. This work aimed to study the organization of medical-social services for the elderly internally displaced persons at the level of primary medico-sanitary aid (PMSA) in Ukraine, assessment of the main tasks and specifics of organization and provision of palliative and hospice care (PHC) under COVID-19 conditions. As a result of the sociological investigation, using the questionnaire methods and experts’ evaluations, we have analyzed the socio-psychological characteristics of the elderly internally displaced persons, the specifics of their social adaptation, financing and medico-social servicing at the level PMSA, including structural modernization and optimization of organizational provision. The introduction of an affordable and economically viable system allows for the interaction of specialists from health care and social protection institutions, and optimizes compliance with the standards and principles of medical care. Within the framework of the PНC, we use the European approaches of formation of the strategy of palliative care expansion under COVID-19 pandemic. One of the main tasks is the provision of constant PHC. Introduction of the organization-structural system of the medical-social care at the PMSA level and provision of accessible and highly qualitative constant PHC are actual for the elderly displaced people, who are in the group of high risk COVID-19 death group.


2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ratna Sugiyana ◽  
Dadan Kurniansyah ◽  
Mochamad Faizal Rizki

Asically, poor people are people who are weak in the ability to fulfill their basic needs such as clothing, food and shelter and also do not have the ability to do business because everything they have is so limited that they are unable to participate in a decent social life. One of the special programs issued by the government is the Family Hope Program as an effort to build a social protection system for the poor in order to maintain and improve the social welfare of the poor as well as an effort to break the chain of poverty. In this study, researchers used a descriptive method with a qualitative research approach. The data collection technique is done by literature study, observation, interview, documentation and triangulation. Data is determined from sources based on nonprobability sampling techniques. The informants in this study were 6 informants consisting of Social Service employees as key informants. PKH Coordinator and PKH Facilitator as secondary informants. And the community, especially the community members of the Family Hope Program as informants. This research uses Edy Sutrisno's theory of effectiveness which consists of understanding the program, being on target, on time, achieving goals and real change. The results of this study indicate that the Harapan Family Program has not been running effectively where there are still obstacles in the implementation process.


2022 ◽  
Vol 27 ◽  
pp. 717-726
Author(s):  
Dickson Machimbidza ◽  
Louis Nyahunda ◽  
Jabulani C. Makhubele

This study was aimed at exploring the efficacy of social work roles in disaster risk management in Zimbabwe in the face of climatic changes. It was carried out in Binga district, Matebeleland-North province using the qualitative methodology and a case study design. The study sample was comprised of 8 practicing social workers. Snowballing and purposive sampling techniques were used to select these participants. Data were collected through in-depth interviews using an interview guide. Thematic content analysis was employed to analyze the collected data. It was found that social workers play essential roles before, during and after disasters. On disaster preparedness, it was established that social workers assume roles of educators, community workers and disaster planners. Moreover, it was found that they play the roles of case managers, administrators of social protection and counselors during the disaster response phase of disaster risk management. Subsequently they also act as advocates, development facilitators as well as monitoring and evaluation personnel in the disaster recovery phase. As per the findings, the study recommends that social workers be recognized as essential in disaster risk management at both policy and practice level. Further, there is need to enhance social work training education for flexibility and contextual application of social work knowledge in the field of disaster risk management for quality realization of green social work in Zimbabwe.


Author(s):  
Saka, Najim ◽  

Women constitute about half of the population of Nigeria and thus a critical mass in the human capital of the country. They make significant contributions to social and economic development of the society, yet they are never appreciated nor supported by public or private institutions. Recently there have been a growing number of women in construction labour work in the Nigerian Construction Sector (NCS) - an area hitherto exclusively preserved of the male folks. This study investigates aspects of social and economic conditions of women construction labourers (WCLs) in Ondo State Southwest Nigeria. Convenience and Snowball sampling were used to sample 101 WCLs. Simple descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data. The result indicates that most WCLs are low in education and skills hence they mostly participate in supportive roles that are energetic. The WCLs are exposed to multiple risks due to poor Health, Safety and Environment (HSE), welfare and social protection of Nigerian Construction Contractors (NCCs) in the informal construction sub sector of the NCS. The study recommends for the improvement and enforcement of HSE standards, welfare package and training in the NCS.


2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Alhassan Abdul-Wakeel Karakara ◽  
Ernest Amoabeng Ortsin

Purpose Ghana has implemented different kinds of pro-poor program and policies since its independence to reduce poverty. The Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP) is one of such program. LEAP is a social cash transfer program and its implementation has been under the auspices of the Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Protection since 2008. It provides direct cash and health insurance coverage for extremely poor households across the country to alleviate short-term poverty and encourage long-term human capital development. This paper examines the LEAP program in terms of how it has achieved its aim and the opportunities for improvement.Design/methodology/approach Primary data were obtained from interviews of 110 beneficiaries of the program. The study proposes a conceptual framework that links poverty reduction and social policies to assist researchers analyze pro-poor or social cash transfer program.Findings The findings show that the program is challenged with administrative bureaucracies, irregular inflow of funds, perceived political interferences, inconsistent implementation strategies and low value of the cash transfer (which results in little or no impact on consumption). However, the data also show that LEAP has positive impacts on nonconsumption spending like children's schooling. The program' exit strategy does not impact much on beneficiaries to allow them exit without the tendency of being poor.Practical implications This paper discussed the LEAP program as a social cash transfer to the poor in Ghana. The study constructed a conceptual framework to help researchers and practitioners analyze the implementation of pro-poor interventions. This conceptualization allows for cash transfer program to empower beneficiaries and exits them to allow for other beneficiaries to enroll, ensuring reduction in poverty over time. Generally, the beneficiaries have benefited from the LEAP in the areas of consumption, education and healthcare with few beneficiaries being able to accumulate some few assets. The LEAP program has no exit plan.Originality/value This study adds to literature by offering a conceptual framework to help researchers and policy makers in dealing with social assistance policies to the poor. The study also gave an insight into how pro-poor policy strategies could be crafted.


Author(s):  
Vadym Polischuk

Annotation. Introduction. The article investigates the main problems in the field of social protection of the population in Ukraine that require an immediate solution. The theoretical approach to the financial support of the social sphere is considered. The reasons for the negative impact on the implementation of budget policy in the social protection system are investigated. The financing of social protection and social security, health and education from state and local budgets of Ukraine is analyzed. Changes in the system of social protection through the transformation of financing of the social protection system are determined. The purpose of the article. It is worth exploring the financial support of social services in Ukraine in recent years. It is also worth offering possible ways to counteract the underfunding of the social sphere from the budgets of different levels. Results. Formation of national social security in the system of public finance management should be carried out on the basis of the system of fiscal norms and to be focused; to ensure effective forms of supporting various social groups that require social protection; transition to cash provision of welfare; Personal assistance to the state is included in income of individuals and families. Taking into account that wages are still the main source of income in Ukraine, it is necessary to increase its share in income, paying special attention to minimal hourly remuneration. Conclusions. The main reason for the negative impact on the implementation of fiscal policy in the social security system is mainly reflected in the implementation of the budget expenditures approved by the state. In addition, during the research process, we have found that in the state budget of Ukraine, social security expenditures and social insurance funds have increased more than doubled over the past five years, indicating the lack of funds in this area.


2022 ◽  
pp. 629-648
Author(s):  
Sefakor Grateful-Miranda Ama Komabu-Pomeyie

Ghana has many interventions or systems to eradicate poverty among vulnerable people, especially those with disabilities. Ghana's Parliament launched the Social Protection Program in conformity with the United Nations Convention on the Right of People with Disabilities (UNCRPD) as well as the Disability Law of Ghana. One of these programs is the Social Protection Program, under which rehabilitation and RLG ICT training of People with Disabilities (PWDs) have been implemented in the classroom. The main goal of this program is to educate PWDs, granting them employable skills and thereby enabling them to become independent citizens. This chapter, which is related to one of the recommended topics, “Issues and Challenges of Digital Tools and Applications in the Classroom,” draws on and employs a phenomenological approach to confirm the lack of culturally responsiveness of technology to the Ghanaian disability community. Participants indicated they were disconnected from the program because the technological devices were foreign and not connected to their indigenous culture.


2022 ◽  
pp. 47-76
Author(s):  
Okanlade Adesokan Lawal-Adebowale

The emergence and spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with its attendant coronavirus disease in late 2019 (COVID-19) have brought untold social and economic hardships on the global society but with severe impacts on the sub-Saharan African households. The social and economic impacts were severe given that lifestyle in Africa is largely characterised by poor infrastructure development and social amenities. This situation increased food insecurity arising from complete loss or temporary halt of means of livelihood of the continent's households. Alongside this is loss of social security with resultant psychological stress and anxieties. This notwithstanding, developed resilience and social protection support have strengthened the African households to cope and possibly recover from the negative impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.


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