The effect of vitamin D (VD) on the risk of preeclampsia (PE) is uncertain. Few of previous studies focused on the relationship between dietary VD intake and PE risk. Therefore, we conducted this 1:1 matched case-control study to explore the association of dietary VD intake and serum VD concentrations with PE risk in Chinese pregnant women. A total of 440 pairs of participants were recruited during March 2016 to June 2019. Dietary information was obtained using a 78-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 were measured by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Restricted cubic splines (RCS) were plotted to evaluate the dose-response relationship of dietary VD intake and serum VD concentrations with PE risk. Compared with the lowest quartile, the ORs of the highest quartile were 0.45 (95%CI: 0.29-0.71, Ptrend = 0.001) for VD dietary intake and 0.26 (95%CI: 0.11-0.60, Ptrend = 0.003) for serum levels after adjusting for confounders. In addition, the RCS analysis suggested a reverse J-shaped relationship between dietary VD intake and PE risk (P-nonlinearity = 0.02). A similar association was also found between serum concentrations of total 25(OH)D and PE risk (P-nonlinearity = 0.02). In conclusion, this study provides evidence that higher dietary intake and serum levels of VD are associated with the lower risk of PE in Chinese pregnant women.