matched case control study
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2022 ◽  
Vol 76 ◽  
pp. 102077
Karen W. Yeh ◽  
Di He ◽  
Johnni Hansen ◽  
Catherine L. Carpenter ◽  
Beate Ritz ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Fatima Mir ◽  
Shabina Ariff ◽  
Maria Bhura ◽  
Suhail Chanar ◽  
Apsara Ali Nathwani ◽  

Background: Acute respiratory infection (ARI) accounts for nearly 15% of all childhood mortality in South Asia, with children from rural areas at higher risk due to inaccessibility to healthcare facilities. We therefore aimed to identify risk factors associated with ARI in children under 2 years of age in rural Pakistan.Methods: A retrospective 1:2 matched case–control study was conducted between October and December 2018 in Taluka Kotri, Jamshoro District of Pakistan. Cases were identified as children between 0 and 23 months of age with a history of fever, cough, sore throat, fast breathing, difficulty breathing, or chest indrawing in the 2 weeks prior to the survey. Controls were participants without symptoms of ARI, matched based on age in months. Data analysis was conducted using STATA version 15. Univariate and multivariable conditional logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with ARI, and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: We identified 1,071 cases of ARI who were matched with 2,142 controls. Multivariable analysis revealed that female gender [odds ratio (OR) 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67–0.91], exclusive breastfeeding (OR 0.81, 95% CI: 0.69–0.97), and comorbidity with diarrhea (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.40–1.91) were significantly associated with ARI.Conclusion: Pakistan continues to progress toward reducing childhood mortality, particularly ARI-related deaths, for which it bears a great burden. This study identifies risk factors such as the male gender, breastfeeding, and comorbidities with diarrhea, which could open grounds for further programmatic implications in targeting a multifaceted approach to reducing incidences of ARI in rural areas of the country.

2022 ◽  
Amanda Zheutlin ◽  
Miles Ott ◽  
Ran Sun ◽  
Natalia Zemlianskaia Zemlianskaia ◽  
Meagan Rubel ◽  

Abstract Objectives: Determine durability of protection by the three currently available COVID-19 vaccines in the United States (US) following primary vaccination against breakthrough infections, hospitalizations, and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions. Methods: Using claims and laboratory data covering 168 million lives, we conducted a matched case-control study with fully vaccinated individuals between January 1 and September 7, 2021. Odds ratios (OR) for developing outcomes in months two through six following full vaccination were estimated relative to the first month after full vaccination for each vaccine separately. Results: Evidence of waning protection against infections started in month 2 from vaccination for both BNT162b2 (OR [95% CI] in month 6+, 2.93 [2.72, 3.15]) and mRNA-1273 (OR [95% CI] in month 6+, 2.76 [2.51, 3.04]), and in month 4 for Ad26.COV2.S (OR [95% CI] in month 5+, 1.31 [1.18, 1.47]). Evidence of waning protection against hospitalization started in month 2 for BNT162b2 (OR [95% CI], 3.97 [3.26, 4.83] in month 6+) and in month 3 for mRNA-1273 (OR 95% CI, 1.66 [1.26, 2.19] in month 6+). There was no evidence of waning protection against hospitalization for Ad26.COV2.S (OR [95% CI], 1.25 [0.86, 1.80] in month 5+). No waning of protection was observed at any time for ICU admissions for all three vaccines. Conclusions: Following primary vaccination, all three vaccines showed strong and durable protection against ICU admissions. Ad26.COV2.S showed a more durable level of protection against breakthrough infections and hospitalizations in line with published evidence of its durable antibody and cellular immune response, although its Vaccine Effectiveness (VE) at baseline after a single-dose is lower than that for the two-dose mRNA vaccines. Additional studies are needed to understand durability following homologous or heterologous boosters.

2022 ◽  
Sunwha Park ◽  
Young-Ah You ◽  
Young-Han Kim ◽  
Eunjin Kwon ◽  
AbuZar Ansari ◽  

Abstract Ureaplasma and Prevotella infections are well-known bacteria associated with preterm birth. However, with the development of metagenome sequencing techniques, it has been found that not all Ureaplasma and Prevotella colonizations cause preterm birth. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between Ureaplasma and Prevotella colonization with the induction of preterm birth even in the presence of Lactobacillus. In this matched case-control study, a total of 203 pregnant Korean women were selected and their cervicovaginal fluid samples were collected during mid-pregnancy. The microbiome profiles of the cervicovaginal fluid were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene amplification. Sequencing data were processed using QIIME1.9.1. Statistical analyses were performed using R software, and microbiome analysis was performed using the MicrobiomeAnalyst and Calypso software. A positive correlation between Ureaplasma and other genera was highly related to preterm birth, but interestingly, there was a negative correlation with Lactobacillus and term birth, with the same pattern observed with Prevotella. Ureaplasma and Prevotella colonization with Lactobacillus abundance during pregnancy facilitates term birth, although Ureaplasma and Prevotella are associated with preterm birth. Balanced colonization between Lactobacillus and Ureaplasma and Prevotella is important to prevent preterm birth.

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 115
Alvydas Malakauskas ◽  
Katja Schulz ◽  
Indrė Kukanauskaitė ◽  
Marius Masiulis ◽  
Franz Josef Conraths ◽  

While numerous risk factors of African swine fever (ASF) transmission to domestic pigs have been described, ASF virus introduction has often not been traced back to one single defined cause. The large number of ASF outbreaks that occurred in domestic pigs in Lithuania from 2014 through to 2018 raised the question regarding whether outbreak-specific risk factors and transmission routes could be identified. Therefore, a prospective matched case-control study was designed. Data from 18 outbreaks that occurred in Lithuanian in 2019 and 36 control farms were analyzed. Conditional multivariable logistic regression showed that two or more visits by veterinary inspection of a farm had a significant preventive effect on the occurrence of ASF on a farm (Odds ratio (OR) 14.21, confidence interval (CI) 1.09–185.60 for farms not inspected vs. farms inspected twice or more a year), while certain practices (e.g., mushroom picking, sharing equipment, etc.), which might facilitate the indirect introduction of ASF from fields and forests into piggeries, significantly increased the odds of an outbreak (OR 5.18, CI 1.10–24.44). The results of the study highlight the importance of veterinary inspections for increasing the biosecurity level on pig farms and the awareness of ASF. The knowledge on potential protective and risk factors may help to improve the prevention and control of ASF outbreaks in domestic pig farms in Lithuania and other affected countries.

2022 ◽  

Abstract The full text of this preprint has been withdrawn by the authors due to author disagreement with the posting of the preprint. Therefore, the authors do not wish this work to be cited as a reference. Questions should be directed to the corresponding author.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 ◽  
pp. 117863022110644
Nebiyou Tafesse ◽  
Massimiliano Porcelli ◽  
Sirak Robele Gari ◽  
Argaw Ambelu

Background: There is no study conducted on the association between disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in chlorinated drinking water and colorectal cancer (CRC) in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the relation between chlorine based DBPs in drinking water and CRC in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: A facility based matched case control study was conducted involving 224 cases and 448 population controls from June 2020 to May 2021. Cases were defined as histologically confirmed CRC cases. Cases were matched with controls by residence, age, and sex using frequency and individual matching. Geocoding of cases, health facility, and georeferencing of controls were carried out. Data was collected using a pretested structured questionnaire. Pearson Chi square and Fisher’s exact tests were employed to assess associations. Stratified analysis was used to detect confounding factors and effect modification. A multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to identify risk factors of CRC. Results: Of 214 CRC cases, 148 (69.2%) used chlorinated water whereas out of 428 controls 161 (37.6%) used chlorinated water. In the final regression model, drinking chlorinated surface water (adjusted matched odds ratio [adjusted mOR] = 2.6; 95% CI 1.7-4.0), history of swimming (adjusted mOR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-4.1), years at the place of current residence (adjusted mOR = 1.5; 95% CI 1.1-2.2), hot tap water use for showering (adjusted mOR; 3.8 = 95% CI 2.5-5.9) were significantly associated with CRC. The stratified analysis confirmed that smoking and meat ingestion were not effect modifiers and confounders. Conclusion: Drinking chlorinated water for extended years is a significant risk factor for CRC in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In addition, hot tap water use for showering, and swimming history are risk factors for CRC. This information is essential to design integrated interventions that consider chlorination by-products and exposure routes toward the prevention and control of CRC in Ethiopia. Initiating alternative methods to chlorine disinfection of drinking water is also essential.

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