birth defects
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2022 ◽  
Augustina Delaney ◽  
Samantha M. Olson ◽  
Nicole M. Roth ◽  
Janet D. Cragan ◽  
Shana Godfred-Cato ◽  

Abstract During the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Zika Virus Response, birth defects surveillance programs adapted to monitor birth defects potentially related to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy. Pregnancy outcomes occurring during January 2016-June 2017 in 22 U.S. states and territories were used to estimate the prevalence of those brain and eye defects potentially related to ZIKV. Jurisdictions were divided into three groups: areas with widespread ZIKV transmission, areas with limited local ZIKV transmission, and areas without local ZIKV transmission. Prevalence estimates for selected brain and eye defects and microcephaly per 10,000 live births were estimated. Prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Poisson regression for areas with widespread and limited ZIKV transmission compared to areas without local ZIKV transmission. Defects with significantly higher prevalence in areas of widespread transmission were pooled, and PRs were calculated by quarter, comparing subsequent quarters to the first quarter (January – March 2016). Nine defects had significantly higher prevalence in areas of widespread transmission. The highest PRs were seen in intracranial calcifications (PR=12.6, 95% CI [7.4, 21.3]), chorioretinal abnormalities (12.5 [7.1, 22.3]), brainstem abnormalities (9.3, [4.7, 18.4]), and cerebral/cortical atrophy (6.7, [4.2, 10.8]). The PR of the nine pooled defects was significantly higher in three quarters in areas with widespread transmission. The largest difference in prevalence was observed for defects consistently reported in infants with congenital ZIKV infection. Birth defects surveillance programs could consider monitoring a subset of birth defects potentially related to ZIKV in pregnancy.

Eva Belingon Felipe-Dimog ◽  
Ma-Am Joy Realce Tumulak ◽  
Mercy Ygona Laurino ◽  
Sandra Daack-Hirsch ◽  
Catherine Lynn Tipton Silao ◽  

Jing Li ◽  
Yujiao Du ◽  
Fengyi Qu ◽  
Hui Jing ◽  
Hong Yan ◽  

Abstract Previous studies have suggested that maternal active smoking can increase the risk of birth defects, but evidence on second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) is limited. We aimed to assess the association between maternal exposure to SHS and birth defects in a Chinese population. The data were based on a large-scale cross-sectional survey conducted in Shaanxi Province, China. Considering the characteristics of survey design and the potential impact of confounding factors, we adopted propensity score matching (PSM) to match the SHS exposure group and the non-exposure group to attain a balance of the confounders between the two groups. Subsequently, conditional logistic regression was employed to estimate the effect of SHS exposure on birth defects. Furthermore, sensitivity analyses were conducted to verify the key findings. After nearest neighbor matching of PSM with a ratio of 2 and a caliper width of 0.03, there were 6,205 and 12,410 participants in the exposure and control group, respectively. Pregnant women exposed to SHS were estimated to be 58% more likely to have infants with overall birth defects (OR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.30–1.91) and 75% more likely to have infants with circulatory system defects (OR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.26–2.44). We also observed that the risk effect of overall birth defects had an increasing trend as the frequency of exposure increased. Additionally, sensitivity analyses suggested that our results had good robustness. These results indicate that maternal exposure to SHS likely increases the risk of overall birth defects, especially circulatory system defects, in Chinese offspring.

Leslie Thomas Stayner ◽  
Anja Søndergaard Jensen ◽  
Jörg Schullehner ◽  
Vanessa R. Coffman ◽  
Betina B. Trabjerg ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
Rhodner J. Orisma ◽  

Obviously iron deficiency is determined as the most prevalent nutritional problem in the world today. It is provoked by a lack of iron in the diet. In South Florida, since pregnant women tend to neglect prenatal care, the prevalence of anemia primarily occurs during the first and second trimesters of their pregnancy. Accordingly, medical studies show that premature deliveries, low birth weight, birth defects, infant mortality, etc. result from iron deficiency anemia. In this, birth defects are, however, considered as quite associated with folic acid deficiency anemia. That explains why, this paper also deals with the study published by the March of Dimes on folic acid and pregnancy. In addition, the paper approaches qualitatively the socioeconomic and sociocultural aspects of the disease according to eight (8) interviews conducted in Broward and Miami Date counties to highlight the existing preventive programs for vulnerable population such as women, infants and children in South Florida, USA.

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