growth patterns
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2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 014-026
Mercy M Umokaso ◽  
Bernard JO Efiuvwevwere ◽  
Francis S Ire

Cereal-porridge(‘ogi’) was produced by spontaneous fermentation using maize and sorghum substrates. The microbiological dynamics involved were monitored over a period of 48h fermentation. Bacteria, yeasts and moulds were isolated. Based on the morphological, cultural and biochemical test results, the aerobic bacterial isolates were identified as Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella sp, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp, Citrobacter sp, Bacillus sp, Proteus sp, Shigella sp, and Escherichia coli. The Lactic acid bacteria were Lactococcus sp, Enterococcus sp, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus sp. The yeast isolates were 2 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one other Saccharomyces sp and a Candida sp. The moulds were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus sp and Penicillium sp. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated were 2 strains of Lactococcus lactis, 2 Enterobacter spp, 5 strains of Lactobacillus fermentum and 1 other Lactobacillus sp. The initial total viable aerobic bacterial count at 0h in maize, sorghum and maize-sorghum blend were 4.6 × 104, 7.3 × 104 and 2.4 × 105cfu/ml respectively. The growths rose to peaks of 6.5 × 107 and 3.9 × 107cfu/ml at 24h in maize and maize-sorghum blend, respectively. A Peak of 4.7 x 107cfu/ml was attained at 36h in sorghum. Coliform bacteria and moulds growths in the three samples attained peaks of growth at 12h and reduced till there was no growth by 48h. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts increased in numbers till the end of fermentation. The initial pH value at 0h was lowest in maize-sorghum blend sample (5.43) and highest in maize (5.75). Final values at 48h were 3.76, 3.78 and 3.75 in maize, sorghum and maize-sorghum blend samples respectively. There were no significant differences between the microbial growth patterns, changes in pH, total titratable acidity (TTA) and amylase enzymatic activities in maize, sorghum and maize-sorghum blend samples during fermentation.

2022 ◽  
Josepha Godivier ◽  
Elizabeth Anna Lawrence ◽  
Mengdi Wang ◽  
Chrissy L Hammond ◽  
Niamh C Nowlan

In early limb embryogenesis, synovial joints acquire specific shapes which determine joint motion and function. The process by which the opposing cartilaginous joint surfaces are moulded into reciprocal and interlocking shapes, called joint morphogenesis, is one of the least understood aspect of joint formation and the cell-level dynamics underlying it are yet to be unravelled. In this research, we quantified key cellular dynamics involved in growth and morphogenesis of the zebrafish jaw joint and synthesised them in a predictive computational simulation of joint development. Cells in larval zebrafish jaw joints labelled with cartilage markers were tracked over a forty-eight hour time window using confocal imaging. Changes in distance and angle between adjacent cell centroids resulting from cell rearrangement, volume expansion and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition were measured and used to calculate the rate and direction of local tissue deformations. We observed spatially and temporally heterogeneous growth patterns with marked anisotropy over the developmental period assessed. There was notably elevated growth at the level of the retroarticular process of the Meckel's cartilage, a feature known to undergo pronounced shape changes during zebrafish development. Analysis of cell dynamics indicated a dominant role for cell volume expansion in growth, with minor influences from ECM volume increases and cell intercalation. Cell proliferation in the joint was minimal over the timeframe of interest. Synthesising the dynamic cell data into a finite element model of jaw joint development resulted in accurate shape predictions. Our biofidelic computational simulation demonstrated that zebrafish jaw joint growth can be reasonably approximated based on cell positional information over time, where cell positional information derives mainly from cell orientation and cell volume expansion. By modifying the input parameters of the simulation, we were able to assess the relative contributions of heterogeneous growth rates and of growth orientation. The use of uniform rather than heterogeneous growth rates only minorly impacted the shape predictions whereas isotropic growth fields resulted in altered shape predictions. The simulation results suggest that growth anisotropy is the dominant influence on joint growth and morphogenesis. This study addresses the gap of the cellular processes underlying joint morphogenesis, with implications for understanding the aetiology of developmental joint disorders such as developmental dysplasia of the hip and arthrogryposis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Dorothy C. Nyemba ◽  
Emma Kalk ◽  
Michael J. Vinikoor ◽  
Hlengiwe P. Madlala ◽  
Mwangelwa Mubiana-Mbewe ◽  

Abstract Background Infants born HIV-exposed yet remain uninfected (HEU) are at increased risk of poorer growth and health compared to infants born HIV-unexposed (HU). Whether maternal antiretroviral treatment (ART) in pregnancy ameliorates this risk of poorer growth is not well understood. Furthermore, whether risks are similar across high burden HIV settings has not been extensively explored. Methods We harmonized data from two prospective observational studies conducted in Cape Town, South Africa, and Lusaka, Zambia, to compare weight-for-age (WAZ), length-for-age (LAZ) and weight-for-length (WLZ) Z-scores between infants who were HEU and HU, converting infant anthropometric measures using World Health Organisation Growth Standards adjusted for age and sex. Linear mixed effects models were fit to identify risk factors for differences in anthropometrics at 6–10 weeks and 6 months by infant HIV exposures status and by timing of exposure to maternal ART, either from conception or later in gestation. Results Overall 773 mother-infant pairs were included across two countries: women living with HIV (WLHIV), 51% (n = 395) with 65% on ART at conception and 35% initiating treatment in pregnancy. In linear mixed effects models, WAZ and WLZ at 6–10 weeks were lower among infants who were HEU vs HU [β = − 0.29 (95% CI: − 0.46, − 0.12) and [β = − 0.42 (95% CI: − 0.68, − 0.16)] respectively after adjusting for maternal characteristics and infant feeding with a random intercept for country. At 6 months, LAZ was lower [β = − 0.28 CI: − 0.50, − 0.06)] among infants who were HEU, adjusting for the same variables, with no differences in WAZ and WLZ. Within cohort evaluations identified different results with higher LAZ among infants who were HEU from Zambia at 6–10 weeks, [β = + 0.34 CI: + 0.01, + 0.68)] and lower LAZ among infants who were HEU from South Africa [β = − 0.30 CI: − 0.59, − 0.01)] at 6 months, without other anthropometric differences at either site. Conclusion Infant growth trajectories differed by country, highlighting the importance of studying contextual influences on outcomes of infants who were HEU.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Qingling Zhu ◽  
Mengmeng Zhang ◽  
Bingying Liu ◽  
Fang Wen ◽  
Zhili Yang ◽  

Chlorella sorokiniana is one of the most productive microalgal species with a high potential for the production of biofuels and other high value-added molecules. Many studies have focused on its capability of mixotrophic growth using reduced organic carbon and growth pattern shift between autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. In this study, we investigated growth patterns of a novel isolate, C. sorokiniana G32, under mixotrophic growth conditions supplemented with a low level (1.25 g L–1) and a high level (5 g L–1) of glucose. Physiological, transcriptomic (i.e., RNA-seq), and metabolomic (i.e., LC-MS/MS) methods were used. We showed that peak growth based on OD680nm absorbance is ∼4-fold higher with high glucose vs. low glucose supplementation. Photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) in G32 mixotrophic cultures with high or low glucose supplementation remains identical to that of G32 phototrophic growth. We also found that the conversion rate between absorbance-based cell density and cell dry weight with high glucose supplementation was lower than with low glucose. This suggests that more cell biomass is produced under high glucose treatment than with low glucose. The result was confirmed via sucrose density gradient centrifugation. It is likely that accumulation of high concentration of starch may account for this effect. Transcriptomic analysis of G32 cultures (i.e., via RNA-seq) in response to reciprocal change of glucose levels reveals that expression of a subset of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) is correlated with the amount of glucose supplementation. These DEGs are designated as glucose-specific responsive (GSR) genes. GSR genes are enriched for a number of energy metabolic pathways. Together with metabolomics data (i.e., LC-MS/MS), we show that under high-level supplementation, glucose is preferentially oxidized through an oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. Collectively, our results indicate the mechanism of regulation of glucose assimilation and energy metabolism in G32 under mixotrophic conditions with different levels of glucose supplementation revealed by transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses. We propose that C. sorokiniana G32 has the potential for the production of high value-added molecules.

Allison L. Machnicki ◽  
Cassaundra A. White ◽  
Chad A. Meadows ◽  
Darby McCloud ◽  
Sarah Evans ◽  

Nearly one-third of children in the United States are overweight or obese by their pre-teens. Tall stature and accelerated bone elongation are characteristic features of childhood obesity, which co-occur with conditions such as limb bowing, slipped epiphyses, and fractures. Obese children paradoxically have normal circulating IGF-I, the major growth-stimulating hormone. Here we describe and validate a mouse model of excess dietary fat to examine mechanisms of growth acceleration in obesity. We used in vivo multiphoton imaging and immunostaining to test the hypothesis that high-fat diet increases IGF-I activity and alters growth plate structure before the onset of obesity. We tracked bone and body growth in male and female C57BL/6 mice (N = 114) on high-fat (60% kcal fat) or control (10% kcal fat) diets from weaning (3-weeks) to skeletal maturity (12-weeks). Tibial and tail elongation rates increased after brief (1-2 week) high-fat diet exposure without altering serum IGF-I. Femoral bone density and growth plate size were increased, but growth plates were disorganized in not-yet-obese high-fat diet mice. Multiphoton imaging revealed more IGF-I in the vasculature surrounding growth plates of high-fat diet mice, and increased uptake when vascular levels peaked. High-fat diet growth plates had more activated IGF-I receptors and fewer inhibitory binding proteins, suggesting increased IGF-I bioavailability in growth plates. These results, which parallel pediatric growth patterns, highlight the fundamental role of diet in the earliest stages of developing obesity-related skeletal complications and validate the utility of the model for future studies aimed at determining mechanisms of diet-enhanced bone lengthening.

2022 ◽  
Vol 134 ◽  
pp. 108480
Chengcheng Liu ◽  
Liqiang Zhao ◽  
Nanyu Zhao ◽  
Wei Yang ◽  
Jialong Hao ◽  

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