cognitive processes
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Andreia Fuentes Santos ◽  
Marilia Moraes Queiroz Souza ◽  
Karoline Bach Pauli ◽  
Gustavo Ratti da Silva ◽  

Bacopa monnieri(L.) Wettst. (Plantaginaceae), also known as Brahmi, has been used to improve cognitive processes and intellectual functions that are related to the preservation of memory. The objective of this research is to review the ethnobotanical applications, phytochemical composition, toxicity and activity of B. monnieriin the central nervous system. It reviewed articles on B. monnieriusing Google Scholar, SciELO, Science Direct, Lilacs, Medline, and PubMed. Saponins are the main compounds in extracts of B. monnieri. Pharmacological studies showed that B. monnieriimproves learning and memory and presents biological effects against Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. No preclinical acute toxicity was reported. However, gastrointestinal side effects were reported in some healthy elderly individuals. Most studies with B. monnierihave been preclinical evaluations of cellular mechanisms in the central nervous system and further translational clinical research needs to be performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the plant.

2022 ◽  
pp. JN-TS-1919-21
Edward Zagha ◽  
Jeffrey C. Erlich ◽  
Soohyun Lee ◽  
Gyorgy Lur ◽  
Daniel H. O’Connor ◽  

Religions ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 66
Kamala Klebanova

The existent trend of implementing mindfulness-based programs (MBPs) into public education came along with an increasing scientific record regarding the definitional construct of mindfulness, effects of various mindfulness-based interventions and their basic mechanisms. In terms of the rising definitional discourse in the interdisciplinary field of mindfulness, the “threefold model of mindful wisdom” (TMMW) was proposed. In the present paper’s quest of rethinking mindfulness in education, the relevance of the TMMW for didactics in modern Western educational systems (with special interest on the region of Germany) is examined, affirmed in several points and—with the aid of the “Theory of Mental Interference” (TMI)—methodically linked to individual learners’ needs. The TMI has been developed at the University of Hamburg since 1984 by Wagner and colleagues. This is compatible with the TMMW with regard to the concept of self and basic psychological mechanisms of “mindful exercises”. Its basic approach conceives the epistemic level of cognitive processes (1) to be unbiased by affect and (2) to be different from a level of mental interference, which in case of an arising default habitually interferes with the cognitive processes. Implications for further research, for modern educational systems and for MBPs in education are discussed.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 547
Anna Lewandowska ◽  
Izabela Rejer ◽  
Kamil Bortko ◽  
Jarosław Jankowski

When reading interesting content or searching for information on a website, the appearance of a pop-up advertisement in the middle of the screen is perceived as irritating by a recipient. Interrupted cognitive processes are considered unwanted by the user but desired by advertising providers. Diverting visual attention away from the main content is intended to focus the user on the appeared disruptive content. Is the attempt to reach the user by any means justified? In this study, we examined the impact of pop-up emotional content on user reactions. For this purpose, a cognitive experiment was designed where a text-reading task was interrupted by two types of affective pictures: positive and negative ones. To measure the changes in user reactions, an eye-tracker (for analysis of eye movements and changes in gaze points) and an iMotion Platform (for analysis of face muscles’ movements) were used. The results confirm the impact of the type of emotional content on users’ reactions during cognitive process interruptions and indicate that the negative impact of cognitive process interruptions on the user can be reduced. The negative content evoked lower cognitive load, narrower visual attention, and lower irritation compared to positive content. These results offer insight on how to provide more efficient Internet advertising.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
Per Nilsen ◽  
Sebastian Potthoff ◽  
Sarah A. Birken

Background: Effectiveness of implementation strategies is influenced by the extent to which they are based on appropriate theories concerning the behaviours that the strategies intend to impact. Effectiveness may be limited simply because the strategies are based on theories that are limited in scope or are derived from partially inaccurate assumptions about the behaviours in question. It may therefore be important to combine insights from various theories to cover the range of influences on the behaviours that will be changed.Aim: This article aims to explore concepts, theories and empirical findings from different disciplines to categorise four types of behaviours and discuss the implications for implementation strategies attempting to change these behaviours.Influences on behaviours: Multilevel influences on behaviours are dichotomized into individual-level and collective-level influences, and behaviours that are guided by conscious cognitive processes are distinguished from those that rely on non-conscious processing. Combining the two dimensions (levels and cognitive modes) creates a 2 x 2 conceptual map consisting of four categories of behaviours. Explicitly conceptualising the levels and cognitive modes is crucial because different implementation strategies are required depending on the characteristics of the behaviours involved in the practise that needs to be changed.Conclusion: The 2 x 2 conceptual map can be used to consider and reflect on the nature of the behaviours that need to be changed, thus providing guidance on the type of theory, model or framework that might be most relevant for understanding and facilitating behaviour change.

2022 ◽  
pp. 017084062210741
Isabelle Bouty ◽  
Cécile Godé

While prior investigations of organizational coordination have mainly focused on cognitive processes, this article brings the physical and symbolic body more centrally into the phenomenon. Mobilizing the ‘strong’ practice programme, we explore how organizational coordination practice and bodies co-produce each other. Our study is an empirical qualitative analysis of Patrouille de France, a military air display squadron. By successively zooming in and out from pilots’ doings and sayings, we reveal three body-related threads (training, sensitizing, and distinguishing) by which organizational coordination and bodies co-produce each other. We especially point to technical and physical capital, proprioception, kinaesthesia, embodied awareness of co-presence, and the symbolic (re)presentation of bodies as embodied aspects of the actors’ habitus structured by and for coordination. Our findings have implications for our understanding of organizational coordination by showing that there is more to bodies in coordination than just embodied cognition or communication. They also further coordination literature by emphasizing that coordination practice includes organizationally structured bodywork aimed at enhancing bodies; bodywork that is not limited to learning the practice but crucial to maintaining actors in that practice.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Samuel S. McAfee ◽  
Yu Liu ◽  
Roy V. Sillitoe ◽  
Detlef H. Heck

Cognitive processes involve precisely coordinated neuronal communications between multiple cerebral cortical structures in a task specific manner. Rich new evidence now implicates the cerebellum in cognitive functions. There is general agreement that cerebellar cognitive function involves interactions between the cerebellum and cerebral cortical association areas. Traditional views assume reciprocal interactions between one cerebellar and one cerebral cortical site, via closed-loop connections. We offer evidence supporting a new perspective that assigns the cerebellum the role of a coordinator of communication. We propose that the cerebellum participates in cognitive function by modulating the coherence of neuronal oscillations to optimize communications between multiple cortical structures in a task specific manner.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Ming-Fang Lin ◽  
Yuan-shan Chen ◽  
Hui-Ju Wu

Abstract This study aims to examine the extent to which peer collaboration affects EFL learners’ speech act production and cognitive processes. Eleven EFL students in the individual group and 22 students (11 pairs) in the collaborative groups were asked to report their cognitive processes when working on a written discourse completion task (WDCT). The WDCT performances were rated on a five-point Likert-type scale, and the verbalizations were analyzed in terms of pragmatic-related episodes (PREs). Results showed that the individual group scored higher on content, whereas the collaborative group outperformed their counterparts on forms. Regarding the cognitive processes, the individual group tended to plan the general direction of their writing before writing the WDCT and paid more attention to sociopragmatic content while writing. In contrast, the collaborative group planned specific details before the task and attended to pragmalinguistic forms more often while writing.

2022 ◽  
pp. 002205742110430
Bilge Aslan Altan

By asking questions, students can practice many cognitive processes, and these processes may reflect clues about their thinking skills. In order to understand students’ cognitive levels in thinking, questions can be used as agents. Doing so, this study focuses on examining students’ questions in terms of cognitive levels of Bloom’s revised taxonomy, namely, remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate, and create. For this purpose, the study followed a qualitative research design with 106 high school students and eight language and literature teachers. To capture the relevant data, students were given two types of texts (narrative and informative), then asked to generate text-based questions as well as their answers. Along with students, teachers were interviewed to find out how they direct students to ask comprehension questions according to instructional strategies they used in asking questions. The data were analyzed through descriptive and content analysis. The results showed that participant students mainly asked questions addressing at the analyze level for the narrative text, and at the understand level for the informative text. These levels are assumed as lower-order thinking skills according to the taxonomy, and possible reasons were discussed with further recommendations.

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