cellular mechanisms
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Andreia Fuentes Santos ◽  
Marilia Moraes Queiroz Souza ◽  
Karoline Bach Pauli ◽  
Gustavo Ratti da Silva ◽  

Bacopa monnieri(L.) Wettst. (Plantaginaceae), also known as Brahmi, has been used to improve cognitive processes and intellectual functions that are related to the preservation of memory. The objective of this research is to review the ethnobotanical applications, phytochemical composition, toxicity and activity of B. monnieriin the central nervous system. It reviewed articles on B. monnieriusing Google Scholar, SciELO, Science Direct, Lilacs, Medline, and PubMed. Saponins are the main compounds in extracts of B. monnieri. Pharmacological studies showed that B. monnieriimproves learning and memory and presents biological effects against Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. No preclinical acute toxicity was reported. However, gastrointestinal side effects were reported in some healthy elderly individuals. Most studies with B. monnierihave been preclinical evaluations of cellular mechanisms in the central nervous system and further translational clinical research needs to be performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the plant.

2025 ◽  
Vol 74 (10) ◽  
pp. 6140-2025

Insects perfectly fit the flagship principle of animal research – 3R: to reduce (the number of animals), to replace (animals with alternative models) and to refine (methods). Bees have the most important advantages of a model organism: they cause minimal ethical controversy, they have a small and fully known genome, and they permit the use of many experimental techniques. Bees have a fully functional DNMT toolkit. Therefore, they are used as models in biomedical/genetic research, e.g. in research on the development of cancer or in the diagnostics of mental and neuroleptic diseases in humans. The reversion of aging processes in bees offers hope for progress in gerontology research. The cellular mechanisms of learning and memory coding, as well as the indicators of biochemical immunity parameters, are similar or analogous to those in humans, so bees may become useful in monitoring changes in behavior and metabolism. Bees are very well suited for studies on the dose of the substance applied to determine the lethal dose or the effect of a formula on life expectancy. Honeybees have proven to be an effective tool for studying the effects of a long-term consumption of stimulants, as well as for observing behavioral changes and developing addictions at the individual and social levels, as well as for investigating the effects of continuously delivering the same dose of a substance. The genomic and physiological flexibility of bees in dividing tasks among workers in a colony makes it possible to create a Single- Cohort Colony (SCC) in which peers compared perform different tasks. Moreover behavioral methods (e.g. Proboscis Extension Reflex – PER, Sting Extension Reflex – SER, free flying target discrimination tasks or the cap pushing response) make it possible to analyse changes occurring in honeybee brains during learning and remembering. Algorithms of actions are created based on the behavior of a colony or individual, e.g. Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm (ABCA). Honeybees are also model organisms for profiling the so-called intelligence of a swarm or collective intelligence. Additionally, they serve as models for guidance systems and aviation technologies. Bees have inspired important projects in robotics, such as B-droid, Robobee and The Green Brain Project. It has also been confirmed that the apian sense of smell can be used to detect explosive devices, such as TNT, or drugs (including heroin, cocaine, amphetamines and cannabis). This inconspicuous little insect can revolutionize the world of science and contribute to the solution of many scientific problems as a versatile model.

2022 ◽  
Hu Zeng ◽  
Jiahao Huang ◽  
Haowen Zhou ◽  
William J. Meilandt ◽  
Borislav Dejanovic ◽  

Amyloid-β plaques and neurofibrillary tau tangles are the neuropathologic hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the spatiotemporal cellular responses and molecular mechanisms underlying AD pathophysiology remain poorly understood. Here we introduce STARmap PLUS to simultaneously map single-cell transcriptional states and disease marker proteins in brain tissues of AD mouse models at subcellular resolution (200 nm). This high-resolution spatial transcriptomics map revealed a core-shell structure where disease-associated microglia (DAM) closely contact amyloid-β plaques, whereas disease-associated astrocytes (DAA) and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) are enriched in the outer shells surrounding the plaque-DAM complex. Hyperphosphorylated tau emerged mainly in excitatory neurons in the CA1 region accompanied by the infiltration of oligodendrocyte subtypes into the axon bundles of hippocampal alveus. The integrative STARmap PLUS method bridges single-cell gene expression profiles with tissue histopathology at subcellular resolution, providing an unprecedented roadmap to pinpoint the molecular and cellular mechanisms of AD pathology and neurodegeneration.

2022 ◽  
Amelie Bonaud ◽  
Laetitia Gargowitsch ◽  
Simon Gilbert ◽  
Elanchezhian Rajan ◽  
Pablo Canales-Herrerias ◽  

Despite the essential role of plasma cells in health and disease, the cellular mechanisms controlling their survival and secretory capacity are still poorly understood. Here, we identified the SNARE Sec22b as a unique and critical regulator of plasma cell maintenance and function. In absence of Sec22b, plasma cells were barely detectable and serum antibody titres were dramatically reduced. Accordingly, Sec22b deficient mice fail to mount a protective immune response. At the mechanistic level, we demonstrated that Sec22b is indispensable for efficient antibody secretion but also for plasma cell fitness through the regulation of the morphology of the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Altogether, our results unveil a critical role for Sec22b-mediated regulation of plasma cell biology through the control of organelle dynamics.

2022 ◽  
Samuel Thudium ◽  
Katherine C Palozola ◽  
Eloise L'Her ◽  
Erica Korb

Epigenetic regulation plays a critical role in many neurodevelopmental disorders, including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In particular, many such disorders are the result of mutations in genes that encode chromatin modifying proteins. However, while these disorders share many features, it is unclear whether they also share gene expression disruptions resulting from the aberrant regulation of chromatin. We examined 5 chromatin modifiers that are all linked to ASD despite their different roles in regulating chromatin. Specifically, we depleted Ash1L, Chd8, Crebbp, Ehmt1, and Nsd1 in parallel in a highly controlled neuronal culture system. We then identified sets of shared genes, or transcriptional signatures, that are differentially expressed following loss of multiple ASD-linked chromatin modifiers. We examined the functions of genes within the transcriptional signatures and found an enrichment in many neurotransmitter transport genes and activity-dependent genes. In addition, these genes are enriched for specific chromatin features such as bivalent domains that allow for highly dynamic regulation of gene expression. The downregulated transcriptional signature is also observed within multiple mouse models of neurodevelopmental disorders that result in ASD, but not those only associated with intellectual disability. Finally, the downregulated transcriptional signature can distinguish between neurons generated from iPSCs derived from healthy donors and idiopathic ASD patients through RNA-deconvolution, demonstrating that this gene set is relevant to the human disorder. This work identifies a transcriptional signature that is found within many neurodevelopmental syndromes, helping to elucidate the link between epigenetic regulation and the underlying cellular mechanisms that result in ASD.

Chenhui Cai ◽  
Wenhui Hu ◽  
Tongwei Chu

There are multiple diseases or conditions such as hereditary hemochromatosis, hemophilia, thalassemia, sickle cell disease, aging, and estrogen deficiency that can cause iron overload in the human body. These diseases or conditions are frequently associated with osteoarthritic phenotypes, such as progressive cartilage degradation, alterations in the microarchitecture and biomechanics of the subchondral bone, persistent joint inflammation, proliferative synovitis, and synovial pannus. Growing evidences suggest that the conditions of pathological iron overload are associated with these osteoarthritic phenotypes. Osteoarthritis (OA) is an important complication in patients suffering from iron overload-related diseases and conditions. This review aims to summarize the findings and observations made in the field of iron overload-related OA while conducting clinical and basic research works. OA is a whole-joint disease that affects the articular cartilage lining surfaces of bones, subchondral bones, and synovial tissues in the joint cavity. Chondrocytes, osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and synovial-derived cells are involved in the disease. In this review, we will elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with iron overload and the negative influence that iron overload has on joint homeostasis. The promising value of interrupting the pathologic effects of iron overload is also well discussed for the development of improved therapeutics that can be used in the field of OA.

К.П. Кравченко ◽  
К. Л. Козлов ◽  
А.О. Дробинцева ◽  
Д.С. Медведев ◽  
В.О. Полякова

Для понимания патогенеза дилатационной кардиомиопатии (ДКМП) необходимо установить молекулярно-клеточные механизмы старения миокарда, в том числе связанные с программируемой клеточной гибелью, молекулярные механизмы которого практически не изучены. Цель работы - изучение маркеров апоптоза в кардиомиоцитах у пациентов с ДКМП in vitro. В работе использовали метод первичных диссоциированных клеточных культур и метод иммунофлюоресцентной конфокальной лазерной микроскопии. Для моделирования клеточного старения использовали клетки 3-го и 14-го пассажей, соответствующие «молодым» и «старым» культурам. На молекулярном уровне старение клеток кардиомиоцитов сопровождалось повышением экспрессии р16 в 2 раза по сравнению с «молодыми культурами» как в контрольной, так и в группе с ДКМП. Также установлено, что экспрессия р16 в культурах, взятых от пациентов с патологией, была в 2 раза выше, чем в аналогичных культурах от здоровых пациентов. Экспрессия р21 была повышена в группе с ДКМП по сравнению с контрольной группой, однако при старении культуры экспрессия p21 не изменялась, оставаясь на высоком уровне. Наиболее значимые различия были получены при сравнении экспрессии Bax в культуре клеток кардиомиоцитов из группы с ДКМП в «молодой» культуре с нормой - в 3,2 раза. Старение клеток миокарда на молекулярном уровне проявлялось в повышении экспрессии белка Baх, именно он является запускающим механизмом митохондриального пути апоптоза. Возможно, этот путь клеточной гибели является превалирующем при ДКМП. To understand the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMP), it is necessary to establish the molecular-cellular mechanisms of myocardial aging, including those associated with programmed cell death, the molecular mechanisms of which have not been practically studied. The aim of this work is to study markers of apoptosis in cardiomyocytes of patients with DCMP in vitro. We used the method of primary dissociated cell cultures and the method of immunofluorescence confocal laser microscopy. Cells of the 3 and 14 passages, corresponding to «young» and «old» cultures, were used to simulate cellular senescence. Results. At the molecular level, aging of cardiomyocyte cells was accompanied by a twofold increase in the expression of p16 compared to «young cultures» both in the control group and in the group with DCMP. It was also found that the expression of p16 in cultures taken from patients with pathology was 2 times higher than in similar cultures from healthy patients. The expression of p21 was increased in the group with DCMP compared to the control; however, with aging of the culture, the expression of p21 did not change, remaining at a significant level. The most significant differences were obtained when comparing the expression of Bax in the cell culture of cardiomyocytes from the group with DCMP in a «young» culture compared with the norm, 3,2 times. Aging of myocardial cells at the molecular level was manifested in an increase in the expression of the Bax protein, which is the triggering mechanism of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. It is possible that this pathway of cell death is prevalent in DCMP.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 821
Florian Rosier ◽  
Nicolas Fernandez Nuñez ◽  
Magali Torres ◽  
Béatrice Loriod ◽  
Pascal Rihet ◽  

Mortality due to sepsis remains unacceptably high, especially for septic shock patients. Murine models have been used to better understand pathophysiology mechanisms. However, the mouse model is still under debate. Herein we investigated the transcriptional response of mice injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and compared it to either human cells stimulated in vitro with LPS or to the blood cells of septic patients. We identified a molecular signature composed of 2331 genes with an FDR median of 0%. This molecular signature is highly enriched in regulated genes in peritoneal macrophages stimulated with LPS. There is significant enrichment in several inflammatory signaling pathways, and in disease terms, such as pneumonia, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, severe sepsis, an inflammatory disorder, immune suppression, and septic shock. A significant overlap between the genes upregulated in mouse and human cells stimulated with LPS has been demonstrated. Finally, genes upregulated in mouse cells stimulated with LPS are enriched in genes upregulated in human cells stimulated in vitro and in septic patients, who are at high risk of death. Our results support the hypothesis of common molecular and cellular mechanisms between mouse and human sepsis.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-22
Guillermo Eastman ◽  
Elizabeth R. Sharlow ◽  
John S. Lazo ◽  
George S. Bloom ◽  
José R. Sotelo-Silveira

Background: Defining cellular mechanisms that drive Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis and progression will be aided by studies defining how gene expression patterns change during pre-symptomatic AD and ensuing periods of declining cognition. Previous studies have emphasized changes in transcriptome, but not translatome regulation, leaving the ultimate results of gene expression alterations relatively unexplored in the context of AD. Objective: To identify genes whose expression might be regulated at the transcriptome and translatome levels in AD, we analyzed gene expression in cerebral cortex of two AD model mouse strains, CVN (APPSwDI;NOS2 -/- ) and Tg2576 (APPSw), and their companion wild type (WT) strains at 6 months of age by tandem RNA-Seq and Ribo-Seq (ribosome profiling). Methods: Identical starting pools of bulk RNA were used for RNA-Seq and Ribo-Seq. Differential gene expression analysis was performed at the transcriptome, translatome, and translational efficiency levels. Regulated genes were functionally evaluated by gene ontology tools. Results: Compared to WT mice, AD model mice had similar levels of transcriptome regulation, but differences in translatome regulation. A microglial signature associated with early stages of Aβ accumulation was upregulated at both levels in CVN mice. Although the two mice strains did not share many regulated genes, they showed common regulated pathways related to AβPP metabolism associated with neurotoxicity and neuroprotection. Conclusion: This work represents the first genome-wide study of brain translatome regulation in animal models of AD and provides evidence of a tight and early translatome regulation of gene expression controlling the balance between neuroprotective and neurodegenerative processes in brain.

Benjamin W. Scandling ◽  
Jia Gou ◽  
Jessica Thomas ◽  
Jacqueline Xuan ◽  
Chuan Xue ◽  

Many cells in the body experience cyclic mechanical loading, which can impact cellular processes and morphology. In vitro studies often report that cells reorient in response to cyclic stretch of their substrate. To explore cellular mechanisms involved in this reorientation, a computational model was developed by utilizing the previous computational models of the actin-myosin-integrin motor-clutch system developed by others. The computational model predicts that under most conditions, actin bundles align perpendicular to the direction of applied cyclic stretch, but under specific conditions, such as low substrate stiffness, actin bundles align parallel to the direction of stretch. The model also predicts that stretch frequency impacts the rate of reorientation, and that proper myosin function is critical in the reorientation response. These computational predictions are consistent with reports from the literature and new experimental results presented here. The model suggests that the impact of different stretching conditions (stretch type, amplitude, frequency, substrate stiffness, etc.) on the direction of cell alignment can largely be understood by considering their impact on cell-substrate detachment events, specifically whether detachment occurs during stretching or relaxing of the substrate.

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