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Diagnostics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 61
Sutapa Ray ◽  
Nagendra K. Chaturvedi ◽  
Kishor K. Bhakat ◽  
Angie Rizzino ◽  
Sidharth Mahapatra

Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant central nervous system tumor in pediatric patients. Mainstay of therapy remains surgical resection followed by craniospinal radiation and chemotherapy, although limitations to this therapy are applied in the youngest patients. Clinically, tumors are divided into average and high-risk status on the basis of age, metastasis at diagnosis, and extent of surgical resection. However, technological advances in high-throughput screening have facilitated the analysis of large transcriptomic datasets that have been used to generate the current classification system, dividing patients into four primary subgroups, i.e., WNT (wingless), SHH (sonic hedgehog), and the non-SHH/WNT subgroups 3 and 4. Each subgroup can further be subdivided on the basis of a combination of cytogenetic and epigenetic events, some in distinct signaling pathways, that activate specific phenotypes impacting patient prognosis. Here, we delve deeper into the genetic basis for each subgroup by reviewing the extent of cytogenetic events in key genes that trigger neoplastic transformation or that exhibit oncogenic properties. Each of these discussions is further centered on how these genetic aberrations can be exploited to generate novel targeted therapeutics for each subgroup along with a discussion on challenges that are currently faced in generating said therapies. Our future hope is that through better understanding of subgroup-specific cytogenetic events, the field may improve diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment to improve overall quality of life for these patients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Xiaopeng Zhu ◽  
Sian Pan ◽  
Rui Li ◽  
Zebo Chen ◽  
Xingyun Xie ◽  

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive malignant primary central nervous system tumor. Although surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy treatments are available, the 5-year survival rate of GBM is only 5.8%. Therefore, it is imperative to find novel biomarker for the prognosis and treatment of GBM. In this study, a total of 141 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in GBM were identified by analyzing the GSE12657, GSE90886, and GSE90598 datasets. After reducing the data dimensionality, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that expression of PTPRN and RIM-BP2 were downregulated in GBM tissues when compared with that of normal tissues and that the expression of these genes was a good prognostic biomarker for GBM (p<0.05). Then, the GSE46531 dataset and the Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer (GDSC) database were used to examine the relationship between sensitivity radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy for GBM and expression of PTPRN and RIM-BP2. The expression of PTPRN was significantly high in RT-resistant patients (p<0.05) but it was not related to temozolomide (TMZ) resistance. The expression level of RIM-BP2 was not associated with RT or TMZ treatment. Among the chemotherapeutic drugs, cisplatin and erlotinib had a significantly good treatment effect for glioma with expression of PTPRN or RIM-BP2 and in lower-grade glioma (LGG) with IDH mutation. (p < 0.05). The tumor mutational burden (TMB) score in the low PTPRN expression group was significantly higher than that in the high PTPRN expression group (p=0.013), with a large degree of tumor immune cell infiltration. In conclusion, these findings contributed to the discovery process of potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for glioma patients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Yue Hua ◽  
Yuan Wang ◽  
Xue Kang ◽  
Fan Xu ◽  
Zhen Han ◽  

Abstract Background As cancer is one of the main leading causes of mortality, a series of monotherapies such as chemotherapy, gene therapy and radiotherapy have been developed to overcome this thorny problem. However, a single treatment approach could not achieve satisfactory effect in many experimental explorations. Results In this study, we report the fabrication of cyclic RGD peptide (cRGD) modified Au4-iron oxide nanoparticle (Au4-IO NP-cRGD) based on aggregation-induced emission (AIE) as a multifunctional theranostic system. Besides Au4 cluster-based fluorescence imaging and enhanced radiotherapy, iron oxide (IO) nanocluster could realize magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and Fenton reaction-based chemotherapy. Abundant toxic reactive oxygen species generated from X-ray irradiation and in situ tumor-specific Fenton reaction under acidic microenvironment leads to the apoptotic and necrotic death of cancer cells. In vivo studies demonstrated good biocompatibility of Au4-IO NP-cRGD and a high tumor suppression rate of 81.1% in the synergistic therapy group. Conclusions The successful dual-modal imaging and combined tumor therapy demonstrated AIE as a promising strategy for constructing multifunctional cancer theranostic platform. Graphical Abstract

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (22) ◽  
pp. 5868
Stanley S. Stylli

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary central nervous system tumor in adults, accounting for approximately 80% of all brain-related malignancies [...]

Roger E. McLendon ◽  
Anthony T. Yachnis ◽  
Christopher Ryan Miller ◽  
Ho- Keung Ng

Maria Miquel ◽  
Shuman Zhang ◽  
Christian Pilarsky

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a hostile solid malignancy coupled with an extremely high mortality rate. Metastatic disease is already found in most patients at the time of diagnosis, resulting in a 5-year survival rate below 5%. Improved comprehension of the mechanisms leading to metastasis is pivotal for the development of new targeted therapies. A key field to be improved are modeling strategies applied in assessing cancer progression, since traditional platforms fail in recapitulating the complexity of PDAC. Consequently, there is a compelling demand for new preclinical models that mirror tumor progression incorporating the pressure of the immune system, tumor microenvironment, as well as molecular aspects of PDAC. We suggest the incorporation of 3D organoids derived from genetically engineered mouse models or patients as promising new tools capable to transform PDAC pre-clinical modeling and access new frontiers in personalized medicine.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (21) ◽  
pp. 4860
Ji Hye Im ◽  
Tae Hoon Kim ◽  
Kyue-Yim Lee ◽  
Ho-Shin Gwak ◽  
Weiwei Lin ◽  

The diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) is often difficult due to the paucity of cancer cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and nonspecific findings on neuroimaging. Investigations of extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) in CSF could be used for both the diagnosis and study of LM pathogenesis because they reflect the activity of disseminating cancer cells. We isolated CSF extracellular miRNAs from patients (n = 65) of different central nervous system tumor statuses, including cancer control, healthy control, LM, brain metastasis (BM), and primary brain tumor (BT) groups, and performed miRNA microarrays. In unsupervised clustering analyses, all LM and two BM samples showed unique profiles. Among 30 miRNAs identified for LM-specific biomarkers via a Prediction Analysis of Microarrays, miR-335-5p and miR-34b-3p were confirmed in both the discovery and validation samples (n = 23). Next, we performed a significance analysis of the microarray (SAM) to extract discriminative miRNA profiles of two selected CSF groups, with LM samples revealing a greater number of discriminative miRNAs than BM and BT samples compared to controls. Using SAM comparisons between LM and BM samples, we identified 30 upregulated and 6 downregulated LM miRNAs. To reduce bias from different primary cancers, we performed a subset analysis with primary non-small cell lung cancer, and 12 of 13 upregulated miRNAs in LM vs. BM belonged to the upregulated miRNAs in LM. We identified possible target genes and their biological processes that could be affected by LM discriminative miRNAs in NSCLC using the gene ontology database. In conclusion, we identified a unique extracellular miRNA profile in LM CSF that was different from BM, suggesting the use of miRNAs as LM biomarkers in studies of LM pathogenesis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Liang Liang ◽  
Jun Huang ◽  
Ming Yao ◽  
Lei Li ◽  
Xiao-Jian Jin ◽  

Colorectal cancer is a common digestive system tumor, which lacks effective therapeutic targets and biomarkers to accurately determine the prognosis. Sequencing data, immunohistochemistry, and Kaplan–Meier analysis were used to explore GNG4 clinical significance in colorectal cancer. And, through in vitro experiments, the effects of GNG4 on cell behaviors were investigated. The results showed that the mRNA and protein expression levels of GNG4 in patients with colorectal cancer were significantly higher than in normal people. The patients with high GNG4 expression had a worse prognosis than patients with low GNG4 expression. The in vitro experiments presented that after downregulating the expression of GNG4, proliferation, migration, and invasion of SW-620 colon cancer cells were all significantly reduced, apoptosis was significantly increased, and the cell cycle was blocked in the S phase. In summary, GNG4 may be of importance in the therapy of the colorectal cancer; therefore, targeting GNG4 may have certain clinical value in the treatment of colorectal cancer.

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