detection and quantification
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Hyunwoo Kim ◽  
Hanseok Seo ◽  
Jong-Chan Kim ◽  
Hong-Gye Sung ◽  
Ik-Soo Park

2022 ◽  
Vol 221 (3) ◽  
Michelle E. Maxson ◽  
Yazan M. Abbas ◽  
Jing Ze Wu ◽  
Jonathan D. Plumb ◽  
Sergio Grinstein ◽  

Acidification of secretory and endocytic organelles is required for proper receptor recycling, membrane traffic, protein degradation, and solute transport. Proton-pumping vacuolar H+ ATPases (V-ATPases) are responsible for this luminal acidification, which increases progressively as secretory and endocytic vesicles mature. An increasing density of V-ATPase complexes is thought to account for the gradual decrease in pH, but available reagents have not been sufficiently sensitive or specific to test this hypothesis. We introduce a new probe to localize and quantify V-ATPases. The probe is derived from SidK, a Legionella pneumophila effector protein that binds to the V-ATPase A subunit. We generated plasmids encoding fluorescent chimeras of SidK1-278, and labeled recombinant SidK1-278 with Alexa Fluor 568 to visualize and quantify V-ATPases with high specificity in live and fixed cells, respectively. We show that V-ATPases are acquired progressively during phagosome maturation, that they distribute in discrete membrane subdomains, and that their density in lysosomes depends on their subcellular localization.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sergio Murolo ◽  
Marwa Moumni ◽  
Valeria Mancini ◽  
Mohamed Bechir Allagui ◽  
Lucia Landi ◽  

Stagonosporopsis cucurbitacearum is an important seedborne pathogen of squash (Cucurbita maxima). The aim of our work was to develop a rapid and sensitive diagnostic tool for detection and quantification of S. cucurbitacearum in squash seed samples, to be compared with blotter analysis, that is the current official seed test. In blotter analysis, 29 of 31 seed samples were identified as infected, with contamination from 1.5 to 65.4%. A new set of primers (DB1F/R) was validated in silico and in conventional, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and droplet digital (dd) PCR. The limit of detection of S. cucurbitacearum DNA for conventional PCR was ∼1.82 × 10–2 ng, with 17 of 19 seed samples positive. The limit of detection for ddPCR was 3.6 × 10–3 ng, which corresponded to 0.2 copies/μl. Detection carried out with artificial samples revealed no interference in the absolute quantification when the seed samples were diluted to 20 ng. All seed samples that showed S. cucurbitacearum contamination in the blotter analysis were highly correlated with the absolute quantification of S. cucurbitacearum DNA (copies/μl) in ddPCR (R2 = 0.986; p ≤ 0.01). Our ddPCR protocol provided rapid detection and absolute quantification of S. cucurbitacearum, offering a useful support to the standard procedure.

N. R. van der Werf ◽  
P. A. Rodesch ◽  
S. Si-Mohamed ◽  
R. W. van Hamersvelt ◽  
M. J. W. Greuter ◽  

Toxins ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 45
Elina Sohlberg ◽  
Vertti Virkajärvi ◽  
Päivi Parikka ◽  
Sari Rämö ◽  
Arja Laitila ◽  

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an economically important plant disease. Some Fusarium species produce mycotoxins that cause food safety concerns for both humans and animals. One especially important mycotoxin-producing fungus causing FHB is Fusarium graminearum. However, Fusarium species form a disease complex where different Fusarium species co-occur in the infected cereals. Effective management strategies for FHB are needed. Development of the management tools requires information about the diversity and abundance of the whole Fusarium community. Molecular quantification assays for detecting individual Fusarium species and subgroups exist, but a method for the detection and quantification of the whole Fusarium group is still lacking. In this study, a new TaqMan-based qPCR method (FusE) targeting the Fusarium-specific elongation factor region (EF1α) was developed for the detection and quantification of Fusarium spp. The FusE method was proven as a sensitive method with a detection limit of 1 pg of Fusarium DNA. Fusarium abundance results from oat samples correlated significantly with deoxynivalenol (DON) toxin content. In addition, the whole Fusarium community in Finnish oat samples was characterized with a new metabarcoding method. A shift from F. culmorum to F. graminearum in FHB-infected oats has been detected in Europe, and the results of this study confirm that. These new molecular methods can be applied in the assessment of the Fusarium community and mycotoxin risk in cereals. Knowledge gained from the Fusarium community analyses can be applied in developing and selecting effective management strategies for FHB.

2022 ◽  
Hans‐Wolfgang Klafki ◽  
Oliver Wirths ◽  
Brit Mollenhauer ◽  
Thomas Liepold ◽  
Petra Rieper ◽  

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 359
Borja Ferreiro ◽  
Jose Andrade ◽  
Carlota Paz-Quintáns ◽  
Purificación López-Mahía ◽  
Soledad Muniategui-Lorenzo

Currently, gas chromatography is the most common analytical technique for natural gas (NG) analysis as it offers very precise results, with very low limits of detection and quantification. However, it has several drawbacks, such as low turnaround times and high cost per analysis, as well as difficulties for on-line implementation. With NG applications rising, mostly thanks to its reduced gaseous emissions in comparison with other fossil fuels, the necessity for more versatile, fast, and economic analytical methods has augmented. This work summarizes the latest advances to determine the composition and physico-chemical properties of regasified liquid natural gas, focusing on infrared spectroscopy-based techniques, as well as on data processing (chemometric techniques), necessary to obtain adequate predictions of NG properties.

Rodrigo Giglioti ◽  
Hiago Polli ◽  
Bianca Tainá Azevedo ◽  
Luciana Morita Katiki ◽  
Anibal Eugênio Vercesi Filho

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