Cerebrospinal Fluid
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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Manuela Ferrario ◽  
Roberta Pastorelli ◽  
Laura Brunelli ◽  
Shengchen Liu ◽  
Pedro Paulo Zanella do Amaral Campos ◽  

AbstractWe measured plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metabolite concentrations in a 5-day porcine sepsis model of fecal peritonitis. The objectives were: (i) to verify whether the expected pathways that had emerged in previous studies pertain only to the early inflammatory response or persist for the subsequent days; (ii) to identify metabolic derangements that arise later; (iii) to verify whether CSF metabolite concentrations were altered and if these alterations were similar to those in the blood or delayed. We observed an early response to inflammation and cytokine storms with alterations in lipid and glucose metabolism. The arginine/asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and phenylalanine/tyrosine balances changed 24 h after resuscitation in plasma, and later in CSF. There was a rise in ammonia concentration, with altered concentrations of metabolites in the urea cycle. Whether persistent derangement of these pathways have a role not only on short-term outcomes but also on longer-term comorbidities, such as septic encephalopathy, should be addressed in further studies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1S) ◽  
pp. 27-30
A. N. Boyko ◽  
M. V. Melnikov ◽  
O. V. Boyko ◽  
A. R. Kabaeva ◽  
M. A. Omarova ◽  

According to numerous studies, gut microbiota plays a significant role in multiple sclerosis (MS) development. However, data on changes in the gut microbiota in MS is often contradictory. The most common approach in gut microbiota research is the 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing of fecal microbiota. However, such data do not reflect the composition of the entire body microbiota. There is also a lack of data on microbiota markers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with MS and predisposing conditions.Objective: to assess the level of microbial markers in the CSF of patients with MS and radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS).Patients and methods. We used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate microbial markers levels in eight patients with MS, five patients with RIS, and seven controls.Results and discussion. We found an increase in microbial load in patients with MS, indicating a possible association of MS with polymicrobial infection. In particular, an increase in the content of Streptococcus markers was observed, as well as a tendency to a three-fold increase in the campesterol content (a marker of campesterol-producing microfungi) in the CSF of patients with MS, compared to the control group (diagnostic punctures, various diseases of the nervous system of a non-autoimmune or inflammatory nature, not acute states).Conclusion. GC-MS of microbial markers can be used to assess the presence of microbial markers in the CSF. The CSF of patients with MS contains an increased amount of various microbial markers, which may indicate a possible association of MS with polymicrobial infection.

Clément Aveneau ◽  
Claire Hourregue ◽  
Emmanuel Cognat ◽  
Julien Dumurgier ◽  
Hugo Vanderstichele ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (4) ◽  
Behnam Rezai Jahromi ◽  
Päivi Tanskanen ◽  
Anniina Koski-Pàlken ◽  
Christoph Schwartz ◽  
Päivi Koroknay-Pal ◽  

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Despite recent advances in antibiotic treatment, pyogenic ventricular brain infections are still associated with adverse clinical outcome in 80% of affected patients and mortality rates approaching 60%. The limitation of antibiotic penetration into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) challenges the treatment. Intrathecal treatment remains an option for adjunctive therapy to intravenous (iv) antibiotics when the iv therapy fails to sterilize the CFS. Current treatment options do not allow for changing the CSF composition without adversely affecting intracranial pressure (ICP) and power of hydrogen (pH). OBJECTIVE To investigate if CSF composition exchange has impact on ventriculitis patients. METHODS We report 2 cases with pyogenic ventriculitis treated with a new intracranial active fluid exchange system that consists of a dual-lumen catheter to facilitate irrigation and drainage coupled with an intelligent digital pump. RESULTS This new technique allowed us to change the composition of CSF to an antibiotic-consisted fluid. This resulted in the ability to directly modify the concentration of the targeted antibiotics in the CSF, while simultaneously removing bacterial mass without harming brain tissue and controlling ICP and pH. CONCLUSION Our reported experience shows that drainage of purulent fluid caused by healthcare-associated ventriculitis or meningitis is now possible without harming brain tissue and ICP while also changing the composition of CSF to an antibiotic-consisted fluid. Actively removing pus and altering CSF in this manner had an impact on infection treatment and antibiotic penetration. Further cases are needed to confirm that our treatment algorithm is correctly tailored to assist clinicians in reliably treating this catastrophic condition.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (9) ◽  
pp. 341-353
F. Yusupov ◽  
A. Yuldashev

The proportion of neurodegenerative diseases among all neurological disorders is growing year after year. This is explained by the duration of the latency period and the manifestation of signs after the death of about 40–60% of neurons. According to WHO forecasts, neurodegenerative diseases will be the biggest problem in the healthcare system of the XXI century. Among them, the most acute can be considered Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Specific biomarkers of neurodegenerative diseases (diseases: Alzheimer’s; Parkinson’s; Huntington’s) are discussed. Currently, the highest priority in neurology is the identification of specific biomarkers in the blood serum for each nosology. In medicine, less invasive, atraumatic methods are always encouraged, therefore, the detection of biomarkers in the blood has advantages over the detection in the cerebrospinal fluid, the production of which is more invasive. The review examines the biomarkers of Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases.

2021 ◽  
Qing Cai ◽  
Shoujie Wang ◽  
Min Zheng ◽  
Huaizhou Qin ◽  
Dayun Feng

Abstract Objective: Due to the particularity of anatomy, there are many subcutaneous effusions after posterior fossa surgery. This paper discusses the characteristics and treatment strategies of persistent infection related to subcutaneous effusions in the posterior fossa. Methods: Seventeen patients with persistent intracranial infection after neurosurgical posterior fossa surgery from March 2015 to July 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. According to different stages of infection, the treatment process of intracranial infection was divided into the acute infection stage, clinical response stage and infection cure stage, and the measures taken in the different stages were summarized.Results: Compared with the acute infection stage, the indices of body temperature, blood and cerebrospinal fluid in the clinical response stage were improved, but there was no significant difference. There was a significant difference in each index between the acute infection stage and the infection cure stage. After the infection was cured, 17 patients were significantly relieved or cured of subcutaneous effusions by various methods.Conclusion: It is necessary to be alert to the existence of subcutaneous effusions in cases of poor effects or repeated infections after routine treatment. Multiple replacements and flushing of subcutaneous effusions are an important means of treating this kind of infection.

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