cerebrospinal fluid
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 97 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Luis C. Ascanio ◽  
Raghav Gupta ◽  
Yaw Tachie-Baffour ◽  
Kohei Chida ◽  
Adam A. Dmytriw ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Deborah K. Erhart ◽  
Vera Bracknies ◽  
Susanne Lutz-Schuhbauer ◽  
Sonja Wigand ◽  
Hayrettin Tumani

AbstractThe diagnosis of chronic lyme neuroborreliosis can be a challenge even for experienced neurologists. The clinical picture may be multifaceted, including polyradiculitis to cranial nerve palsies, meningitis, encephalomyelitis, encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy. We report on a patient presenting with basal leptomeningoencephalitis associated with vasculopathy where the chemokine CXCL13 in cerebrospinal fluid played an important diagnostic role.

Pier Paolo Mattogno ◽  
Valerio M. Caccavella ◽  
Martina Giordano ◽  
Quintino G. D'Alessandris ◽  
Sabrina Chiloiro ◽  

Abstract Purpose Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for pituitary adenomas can be complicated by the occurrence of intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage (IOL). IOL significantly affects the course of surgery predisposing to the development of postoperative CSF leakage, a major source of morbidity and mortality in the postoperative period. The authors trained and internally validated the Random Forest (RF) prediction model to preoperatively identify patients at high risk for IOL. A locally interpretable model-agnostic explanations (LIME) algorithm is employed to elucidate the main drivers behind each machine learning (ML) model prediction. Methods The data of 210 patients who underwent TSS were collected; first, risk factors for IOL were identified via conventional statistical methods (multivariable logistic regression). Then, the authors trained, optimized, and audited a RF prediction model. Results IOL reported in 45 patients (21.5%). The recursive feature selection algorithm identified the following variables as the most significant determinants of IOL: Knosp's grade, sellar Hardy's grade, suprasellar Hardy's grade, tumor diameter (on X, Y, and Z axes), intercarotid distance, and secreting status (nonfunctioning and growth hormone [GH] secreting). Leveraging the predictive values of these variables, the RF prediction model achieved an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78; 0.86), significantly outperforming the multivariable logistic regression model (AUC = 0.63). Conclusion A RF model that reliably identifies patients at risk for IOL was successfully trained and internally validated. ML-based prediction models can predict events that were previously judged nearly unpredictable; their deployment in clinical practice may result in improved patient care and reduced postoperative morbidity and healthcare costs.

D. J. Balsarkar ◽  
Sachin A. Suryawanshi ◽  
Ajay Alva ◽  
Ravi Warat

2022 ◽  
Dhamidhu Eratne ◽  
Michael Keem ◽  
Courtney Lewis ◽  
Matthew Kang ◽  
Mark Walterfang ◽  

Background: Distinguishing behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) from non-neurodegenerative non-progressor, phenocopy mimics of frontal lobe dysfunction, can be one of the most challenging clinical dilemmas. A biomarker of neuronal injury, neurofilament light chain (NfL), could reduce misdiagnosis and delay. Methods: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) NfL, amyloid beta 1-42 (AB42), total and phosphorylated tau (T-tau, P-tau) levels were examined in patients with an initial diagnosis of bvFTD. Based on follow up information, patients were categorised as Progressors. Non-Progressors were subtyped in to Phenocopy Non-Progressors (non-neurological/neurodegenerative final diagnosis), and Static Non-Progressors (static deficits, not fully explained by non-neurological/neurodegenerative causes). Results: Forty-three patients were included: 20 Progressors, 23 Non-Progressors (15 Phenocopy, 8 Static), 20 controls. NfL concentrations were lower in Non-Progressors (Non-Progressors Mean, M=554pg/mL, 95%CI:[461, 675], Phenocopy Non-Progressors M=459pg/mL, 95%CI:[385, 539], Static Non-Progressors M=730pg/mL, 95%CI:[516, 940]), compared to bvFTD Progressors (M=2397pg/mL, 95%CI:[1607, 3332]). NfL distinguished Progressors from Non-Progressors with the highest accuracy (area under the curve 0.92, 90%/87% sensitivity/specificity, 86%/91% positive/negative predictive value, 88% accuracy). Static Non-Progressors tended to have higher T-tau and P-tau levels compared to Phenocopy Non-Progressors. Conclusion: This study demonstrated strong diagnostic utility of CSF NfL to distinguish bvFTD from phenocopy non-progressor variants, at baseline, with high accuracy, in a real-world clinical setting. This has important clinical implications, to improve outcomes for patients and clinicians facing this challenging clinical dilemma, as well as for healthcare services, and clinical trials. Further research is required to investigate heterogeneity within the non-progressor group and potential diagnostic algorithms, and prospective studies are underway assessing plasma NfL

Metabolites ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 80
Ji-Woong Kwon ◽  
Ji Hye Im ◽  
Kyue-Yim Lee ◽  
Byong Chul Yoo ◽  
Jun Hwa Lee ◽  

The different molecular profiles of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between ventricular and lumbar compartments remain elusive, especially in the context of leptomeningeal metastasis (LM), which affects CSF flow. We evaluated CSF metabolomic and proteomic profiles based on the compartments and the diagnosis of spinal LM, proved by MRI from 20 paired ventricular and lumbar CSF samples of LM patients, including 12 spinal LM (+) samples. In metabolome analysis, 9512 low-mass ions (LMIs) were identified—7 LMIs were abundant in all lumbar versus paired ventricular CSF samples, and 3 LMIs were significantly abundant in all ventricular CSF. In comparisons between spinal LM (+) CSF and LM (−) CSF, 105 LMIs were discriminative for spinal LM (+) CSF. In proteome analysis, a total of 1536 proteins were measured. A total of 18 proteins, including complement C3, were more highly expressed in all lumbar CSF, compared with paired ventricular CSF, while 82 proteins, including coagulation factor V, were higher in the ventricular CSF. Of 37 discriminative proteins, including uteroglobin and complement component C8 gamma chain, 4 were higher in all spinal LM (+) CSF versus spinal LM (−) CSF. We further evaluated metabolic pathways associated with these discriminative proteins using the Gene Ontology database. We found that 16/17 spinal LM (+) pathways, including complement activation, were associated with lumbar discriminative proteins, whereas only 2 pathways were associated with ventricular-discriminative proteins. In conclusion, we determined that metabolite and protein profiles differed between paired lumbar and ventricular CSF samples. The protein profiles of spinal LM (+) CSF showed more similarity with the lumbar CSF than the ventricular CSF. Thus, we suggest that CSF LMIs and proteins could reflect LM disease activity and that LM-associated differences in CSF are more likely to be present in the lumbar compartment.

2022 ◽  
Christiana Bjorkli ◽  
Mary Hemler ◽  
Joshua Julian ◽  
Axel Sandvig ◽  
Ioanna Sandvig

All disease-targeting drug trials completed to date have fallen short of meeting the clinical endpoint of significantly slowing cognitive decline in Alzheimer′s disease patients. Even the recently approved drug Aducanumab, has proven effective in removing amyloid-β, but does not reduce cognitive decline. This emphasizes the urgent need for novel therapeutic approaches that could reduce several AD neuropathologies simultaneously, eventually leading to improved cognitive performance. To validate whether our mouse model replicates AD neuropathology as observed in patients, we characterized the 3xTg AD mouse model to avoid premature translation of successful results. In this study we have repurposed two FDA-approved drugs, Fasudil and Lonafarnib, targeting the Wnt signaling and endosomal-lysosomal pathway respectively, to test their potential to attenuate AD pathology. Using intracerebral microdialysis, we simultaneously infused these disease-targeting drugs between 1-2 weeks, separately and also in combination, while collecting cerebrospinal fluid. We found that Fasudil reduces intracellular amyloid-β in young, and amyloid plaques in old animals, and overall cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β. Lonafarnib reduces tau neuropathology and cerebrospinal fluid tau biomarkers in young and old animals. Co-infusion of both drugs was more effective in reducing intracellular amyloid-β than either drug alone, and appeared to improve contextual memory performance. However, an unexpected finding was that Lonafarnib treatment increased amyloid plaque size, suggesting that activating the endosomal-lysosomal system may inadvertently increase amyloid-β pathology if administered too late in the AD continuum. Taken together, these findings lend support to the application of repurposed drugs to attenuate AD neuropathology at various therapeutic time windows.

2022 ◽  
Dagne Barbuskaite ◽  
Eva Kjer Oernbo ◽  
Jonathan Henry Wardman ◽  
Trine Lisberg Toft-Bertelsen ◽  
Eller Conti ◽  

Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) is observed in many neurological pathologies, e.g. hydrocephalus and stroke. This condition is routinely relieved with neurosurgical approaches, since effective and targeted pharmacological tools are still lacking. The carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide (AZE), may be employed to treat elevated ICP. However, its effectiveness is questioned, its location of action unresolved, and its tolerability low. Here, we employed in vivo and ex vivo approaches to reveal the efficacy and mode of action of AZE in the rat brain. The drug effectively reduced the ICP, irrespective of the mode of drug administration and level of anaesthesia. The effect occurred via a direct action on the choroid plexus and an associated decrease in cerebrospinal fluid secretion, and not indirectly via the systemic action of AZE on renal and vascular processes. Upon a single administration, the reduced ICP endured for approximately 10 h post-AZE delivery with no long-term changes of brain water content or choroidal transporter expression. However, a persistent reduction of ICP was secured with repeated AZE administrations throughout the day. Future specific targeting of choroidal carbonic anhydrases may limit the systemic side effects, and therefore enhance the treatment tolerability and effectiveness in select patient groups experiencing elevated ICP.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
Atef Badji ◽  
Joana B. Pereira ◽  
Sara Shams ◽  
Johan Skoog ◽  
Anna Marseglia ◽  

Background: Hypertension is an important risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the relationship between AD and hypertension are not fully understood, but they most likely involve microvascular dysfunction and cerebrovascular pathology. Although previous studies have assessed the impact of hypertension on different markers of brain integrity, no study has yet provided a comprehensive comparison of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers and structural brain differences between normotensive and hypertensive groups in a single and large cohort of older adults in relationship to cognitive performances.Objective: The aim of the present work was to investigate the differences in cognitive performances, CSF biomarkers and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain structure between normotensive, controlled hypertensive, uncontrolled hypertensive, and untreated hypertensive older adults from the Gothenburg H70 Birth Cohort Studies.Methods: As an indicator of vascular brain pathology, we measured white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), lacunes, cerebral microbleeds, enlarged perivascular space (epvs), and fractional anisotropy (FA). To assess markers of AD pathology/neurodegeneration, we measured hippocampal volume, temporal cortical thickness on MRI, and amyloid-β42, phosphorylated tau, and neurofilament light protein (NfL) in cerebrospinal fluid. Various neuropsychological tests were used to assess performances in memory, attention/processing speed, executive function, verbal fluency, and visuospatial abilities.Results: We found more white matter pathology in hypertensive compared to normotensive participants, with the highest vascular burden in uncontrolled participants (e.g., lower FA, more WMHs, and epvs). No significant difference was found in any MRI or CSF markers of AD pathology/neurodegeneration when comparing normotensive and hypertensive participants, nor among hypertensive groups. No significant difference was found in most cognitive functions between groups.Conclusion: Our results suggest that good blood pressure control may help prevent cerebrovascular pathology. In addition, hypertension may contribute to cognitive decline through its effect on cerebrovascular pathology rather than AD-related pathology. These findings suggest that hypertension is associated with MRI markers of vascular pathology in the absence of a significant decline in cognitive functions.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document