Cucurbita Maxima
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sergio Murolo ◽  
Marwa Moumni ◽  
Valeria Mancini ◽  
Mohamed Bechir Allagui ◽  
Lucia Landi ◽  

Stagonosporopsis cucurbitacearum is an important seedborne pathogen of squash (Cucurbita maxima). The aim of our work was to develop a rapid and sensitive diagnostic tool for detection and quantification of S. cucurbitacearum in squash seed samples, to be compared with blotter analysis, that is the current official seed test. In blotter analysis, 29 of 31 seed samples were identified as infected, with contamination from 1.5 to 65.4%. A new set of primers (DB1F/R) was validated in silico and in conventional, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and droplet digital (dd) PCR. The limit of detection of S. cucurbitacearum DNA for conventional PCR was ∼1.82 × 10–2 ng, with 17 of 19 seed samples positive. The limit of detection for ddPCR was 3.6 × 10–3 ng, which corresponded to 0.2 copies/μl. Detection carried out with artificial samples revealed no interference in the absolute quantification when the seed samples were diluted to 20 ng. All seed samples that showed S. cucurbitacearum contamination in the blotter analysis were highly correlated with the absolute quantification of S. cucurbitacearum DNA (copies/μl) in ddPCR (R2 = 0.986; p ≤ 0.01). Our ddPCR protocol provided rapid detection and absolute quantification of S. cucurbitacearum, offering a useful support to the standard procedure.

2022 ◽  
Habibu Tijjani ◽  
Adamu Matinja ◽  
Marwanatu Yahya ◽  
Emmanuel Aondofa ◽  
Akibu Sani

Diarrhea is a common health complaint occurring with mild, temporary conditions to a potentially life-threatening condition. <i>Cucurbita maxima</i> (Cucurbitaceae) seed is reportedly used traditionally for the treatment of diarrheal and thus this study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidants, total tannins, phenolics contents, and antidiarrheal potentials of <i>n</i>-hexane and aqueous <i>C. maxima</i> seed extracts in castor oil induced diarrheal rats. The <i>n</i>-hexane extract mainly contains oils while the aqueous extract was thick, brown solid. The aqueous and <i>n</i>-hexane seed extract of <i>C. maxima</i> expressed significant 2,2, diphenyl-1-picrythdrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activities at 6.25 – 1000 mg/mL with IC<sub>50</sub> values of 104.01 mg/mL, 29.27 mg/mL and 26.78 mg/mL for <i>n</i>-hexane, aqueous and vitamin C respectively. The hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of the <i>n</i>-hexane and aqueous seed extract of <i>C. maxima</i> were significantly lower at higher concentrations compared with that of vitamin C. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacities of <i>n</i>-hexane (22.08mg/mL) and aqueous seed extract (11.03 mg/mL) of <i>C. maxima</i> were found to be higher than that of vitamin C (134.46 mg/mL). The aqueous extracts (658.33±380.08 mg QE/g) total tannins were not significantly different from the <i>n</i>-hexane extract (468.33±102.55 mg QE/g) while the <i>n</i>-hexane extract contains significantly higher total phenolics (2.93±1.25 mg GAE/g) compared with the aqueous extract (0.19±0.04 mg GAE/g). Percentage inhibition of stooling was found to be 57±22%, 41±16%, and 46±11% for loperamide, <i>n</i>-hexane, and aqueous respectively. The study concludes that aqueous and n-hexane seed extracts of <i>C. maxima</i> (pumpkin) possess in vitro antioxidant activities and antidiarrheal properties.

Toxins ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 38
Paula Llorens ◽  
Renata Pietrzak-Fiećko ◽  
Juan Carlos Moltó ◽  
Jordi Mañes ◽  
Cristina Juan

Validated extraction methods from in vitro digestion phases are necessary to obtain a suitable bioaccessibility study of mycotoxins in bakery products. The bakery industry produces bread with different ingredients to enrich the nutritional properties of this product and protect it from fungal growth. This bread can be contaminated by AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2 and OTA, so an extraction method was developed to analyse these five legislated mycotoxins in digested phases of two types of bread, one with wheat and the other with wheat and also enriched with Cucurbita Maxima Pepo at 20%. The studied “in vitro” digestion model consists of oral, gastric and duodenal phases, each one with different salt solutions and enzymes, that can affect the extraction and most probably the stability of the mycotoxins. The proposed method is a liquid–liquid extraction using ethyl acetate by extract concentration. These analytes and components have an important effect on the matrix effect (MEs) in the analytical equipment, therefore, validating the method and obtaining high sensitivity will be suitable. In the proposed method, the highest MEs were observed in the oral phase of digested pumpkin bread (29 to 15.9 %). Regarding the accuracy, the recoveries were above 83% in the digested duodenal wheat bread and above 76 % in the digested duodenal pumpkin wheat bread. The developed method is a rapid, easy and optimal option to apply to oral, gastric and duodenal phases of digested bread contaminated at a level of established maximum levels by European legislation (RC. 1881/2006) for food.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 113-116
A.A. Ambi ◽  
M. Bashir ◽  
B.M. Hafsat ◽  
M. Nura ◽  
H. Abubakar ◽  

Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds are important food materials used by most Nigerian families due to their delicious taste, aroma and appeal. In this study, changes between chemical composition of processed and unprocessed pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita maxima) was investigated. The nutritional compositions were analyzed by standard methods. The vitamin A contents 36.83 μg/100g and 33.72 μg/100g respectively. The copper, zinc, magnesium,phosphorus and iron contents of processed seeds were; 0.063, 0.43, 47.67, 58.19 and 610.77 ppm respectively while the values for unprocessed were; 0.047, 0.41, 36.73, 58.45 and 211.19 ppm respectively with significant difference between the processed and unprocessed. The finding suggests that pumpkin seed is rich in this vitamin and minerals. If utilized efficiently. It can also ameliorate micronutrients deficiency problem in population of all age groups.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (6) ◽  
pp. 117-119
Yusuf Savsatli ◽  
Arzu Karatas

Grafting method in vegetables has been used in common due to positive effects in agriculture. In this context, it is focused that the studies aimed at increasing yield and quality through grafting. This research was carried out to determine the effects of grafting bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) onto pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima). Effects of grafting on extract yield, dry matter ratio, ash, and macro and micro elemental content of the fruits and leaves of bitter gourd were determined in greenhouse conditions. Grafting significantly increased the dry matter ratio and extract yield in the bitter gourd fruits and the ash content in young, mature and old leaves. In the fruits, a positive correlation (R = 0.9264) was found only between extract yield and dry matter ratio. The main important effect of grafting in terms of macro and micro elements appeared on the fruits of bitter gourd. The accumulation of Ca2+ in the leaves increased during maturation. The positive effect of grafting in terms of Ca2+ increase in fruits was higher in unripe fruits compared to ripe fruits. In addition to obtaining more extracts from the fruits bitter gourd, the enrichment of its fruits in terms of Ca2+ and K+ and its leaves in terms of Ca2+ increases the importance of these parts in terms of human nutrition.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (5) ◽  
pp. 386
Agitya Resti Erwiyani ◽  
Ayu Sonia Cahyani ◽  
Luluk Mursyidah ◽  
Istianatus Sunnah ◽  
Anasthasia Pujistuti

Paparan sinar UV secara berlebih dapat menyebabkan imunosupresan, photoaging dan kanker kulit, apabila paparan mengenai lapisan kulit dermis akan menyebabkan kulit menjadi gelap, eritema serta terjadi kerusakan jaringan kolagen. Tabir surya memiliki mekanisme perlindungan secara fisik melalui penghamburan sinar matahari yang masuk ke dalam kulit serta perlindungan mekanik melalui absorbsi sinar UV. Senyawa alami yang berpotensi untuk dikembangkan sebagai kosmetik tabir surya melalui mekanisme antiaging adalah senyawa yang mempunya cincin aromatik seperti gugus fenol. Kandungan labu diketahui memiliki aktivitas antioksidan diantaranya polifenol, karotenoid dan tokoferol. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memformulasi krim daging buah labu kuning potensinya sebagai tabir surya melalui pengujian nilai SPF menggunakan metode Spektrofotometri. Evaluasi sediaan krim menunjukkan organoleptis berwarna kuning, berbau manis dan berbentuk semi padat. Krim daging labu kuning memiliki nilai pH yang berkisar antara          5,32 – 6,11, daya sebar 5,04 – 5,31 cm, daya lekat 2,77 – 3,73 detik, viskositas 4480 – 7360 cP, dan uji sentrifugasi krim tidak mengalami perubahan. Penyimpanan selama 14 hari sediaan stabil dan tidak mengalami perubahan yang signifikan berdasarkan paired sample T test. Hasil pengujian aktivitas tabir surya menunjukkan nilai SPF F1, F2 dan F3 berturut – turut sebesar 2,15 ± 0,01,    4,69 ± 0,04 dan 5,78 ± 0,02. Krim dengan konsentrasi ekstrak daging buah labu kuning sebesar 5% dan 10% memiliki proteksi tabir surya kategori sedang.

Plant Disease ◽  
2021 ◽  
Hannah M Rivedal ◽  
Javier Felipe Tabima ◽  
Alexandra G Stone ◽  
Ken Johnson

Winter squash (Cucurbita maxima cv. ‘Golden Delicious’) produced in Oregon’s Willamette Valley for edible seed production has experienced significant yield losses due to a soilborne disease. The symptoms associated with this disease problem include root rot, crown rot and vascular discoloration in the stems leading to a severe late season wilt and plant collapse. Through field surveys, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, F. culmorum-like fungi, Plectosphaerella cucumerina, and Setophoma terrestris were identified to be associated with diseased tissues, and each produced symptoms of root rot, crown rot or stem discoloration in preliminary pathogenicity trials. In this study, 219 isolates of these species were characterized by molecular identity analyses using BLAST of the ITS and EF1α genomic regions and by pathogenicity testing in outdoor, large-container trials. Molecular identity analyses confirmed the identity of isolates at 99 to 100% similarity to reference isolates in the database. In pathogenicity experiments, F. solani produced the most severe symptoms, followed by F. culmorum-like fungi, F. oxysporum, P. cucumerina, and S. terrestris. Some treatments of mixed species inoculum produced symptoms above what was expected from individual species. In particular, the mixture of F. culmorum-like fungi, F. oxysporum, and P. cucumerina and the mixture of F. culmorum-like fungi, F. solani, and S. terrestris had equally severe symptom ratings than that of F. solani by itself. Results indicate that this soilborne disease is primarily caused by Fusarium solani, but interactions among the complex of F. solani, F. culmorum-like fungi, F. oxysporum, and P. cucumerina, can exacerbate disease severity.

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