measurement validation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Su Min Hoi ◽  
Ean Hin Ooi ◽  
Irene Mei Leng Chew ◽  
Ji Jinn Foo

AbstractA 3D stationary particle tracking velocimetry (SPTV) with a unique recursive corrective algorithm has been successfully established to detect the instantaneous regional fluid flow characteristics. The veracity of SPTV is corroborated by conducting actual displacement measurement validation, which gives a maximum percentage deviation of about 0.8%. This supports the accuracy of the current SPTV system in 3D position detection. More importantly, the SPTV detected velocity fluctuations are highly repeatable. In this study, SPTV is proven to be able to express the nature of chaotic fractal grid-induced regional turbulence, namely: the high turbulence intensity attributed to multilength-scale wake interactions, the Kolmogorov’s −5/3 law decay, vortex shedding, and the Gaussian flow undulations immediately leeward of the grid followed by non-Gaussian behaviour further downstream. Moreover, by comparing the flow fields between control no-grid and fractal grid-generated turbulence of a plate-fin array, SPTV reveals vigorous turbulence intensity, smaller regional integral-length-scale, and energetic vortex shedding at higher frequency for the latter, particularly between fins. Thereupon, it allows the unravelling of detailed thermofluid interplays of plate-fin heat sink heat transfer augmentation. The novelty of SPTV lies in its simplicity, use of low-cost off-the-shelf components, and most remarkably, low computational complexity in detecting fundamental characteristics of turbulent fluid flow.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Blaine G Robbins

Across the social sciences, generalized trust has been one of the most frequently examined constructs since researchers first introduced measures of it in the 1950s. Despite its significance, there is growing consensus that conventional measures of generalized trust are prone to measurement invalidity and non-equivalence, which places sociological knowledge about generalized trust in serious doubt. In this article, I advance trust research in sociology by (1) refining two new self-report measures of generalized trust—the Stranger Face Trust scale (SFT) and the Imaginary Stranger Trust scale (IST)—and (2) assessing their empirical performance on a nationally representative probability sample (N = 1,264). I compare the reliability and validity of SFT, IST, and traditional measures of generalized trust across a number of measurement validation tests (convergent validity, discriminant validity, known-groups validity, and predictive validity). Results suggest that SFT provides the most accurate and consistent measure of generalized trust. I conclude by discussing the implications of my findings for sociological knowledge.


2021 ◽  
pp. 004912412110557
Author(s):  
Blaine G. Robbins

The Stranger Face Trust scale (SFT) and Imaginary Stranger Trust scale (IST) are two new self-report measures of generalized trust that assess trust in strangers—both real and imaginary—across four trust domains. Prior research has established the reliability and validity of SFT and IST, but a number of measurement validation tests remain. Across three separate studies, I assess the test–retest reliability, measurement invariance, predictive validity, and replicability of SFT and IST, with the misanthropy scale (MST) and generalized social trust scale (GST) serving as benchmarks. First, tests of internal consistency, test–retest reliability, and longitudinal measurement invariance established that all four generalized trust scales were acceptably reliable, with SFT and IST yielding greater overall reliability than MST and GST. Second, tests of multiple group measurement invariance revealed that SFT and IST were equivalent across gender, race, education, and age groups, while MST and GST were non-equivalent across the same sociodemographic groups. Third, an investment game established the predictive validity of SFT and MST, with IST and GST yielding poor predictive validity. Fourth, tests of factor structure and measurement invariance indicated that all four generalized trust scales replicated across samples. The present findings bolster the validity, reliability, and measurement equivalence of SFT and IST, while illustrating the compromised validity and measurement non-equivalence of MST and GST. Implications for the measurement of generalized trust are discussed.


2021 ◽  
Vol 18 ◽  
pp. 1489-1497
Author(s):  
Nur Yuhainis Ab Wahab ◽  
Rusnifaezah Musa ◽  
Siti Haryani Mat Yusoff

Organizations are increasingly under pressure to shift their production methods from traditional to sustainable, reinforcing the requirement to monitor their sustainability performance. The slow performance growth of Malaysian manufacturing companies remains a concern. The goal of this research is to highlighted the measurement used in the Malaysian SME context. Data were collected using survey method. A survey method was employed to collect a total of 1,071 responses in SME firms using proportional stratified sample technique. Using statistical packages for the social sciences (SPSS) version 27, this research focused on data validity and reliability. Findings of factor analysis confirmed 3 factors for the ICT adoption variable, were formed while 1 factor for the innovation variable, 4 factors for the competitiveness variable and 1 factor for the business performance. Only 2 items were dropped due to the weak loadings. Meanwhile the reliability analysis also indicates all the constructs and dimensions achieve good reliability value at more than 0.8. This research demonstrates the measurement validity and reliability of the research variables were inconsistent due to culture setting. This research highlighted the measurement used in the Malaysian SME context. The findings of this research withdraw a conclusion that the validity and reliability of item and construct of this research is proficient and consistent with the previous studies.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (10) ◽  
pp. 23-26
Author(s):  
M Mohankumar ◽  
G Sivakamasundari

Validation is a notable step in fulfilling and keep the character of the last decision. In the event that every progress of the creative process is recognized, we can guarantee that the end result will be of the best quality. Validation is specialized for planning and rehearsing a closely planned step with documents. Verification and quality assurance are inseparable, which guarantees careful quality of products. The process validation underscores the components of the measurement scheme and adheres to the measurement control during commercialization and realizes that it is nothing more than a continuous program and adjust the measurement validation exercises with the item life cycle. The motivation behind this survey is to introduce a presentation and general disclosure on quantitative validation of pharmaceutical production with a unique note to the requirements specified by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Rishabh Bajpai ◽  
Ashutosh Tiwari ◽  
Anant Jain ◽  
Deepak Joshi

<pre>Neuromuscular disorders in Cerebral Palsy (CP) patients lead to foot deformities and affect foot biomechanics leading to compromised gait. Thus, measurement of the foot kinematic measurement is of particular interest to understand and characterize the walking pattern among CP patients. The objective of the present work is to develop a wearable instrument to measure foot kinematics such as foot-to-ground angle in three-dimensional planes and to measure the foot clearance i.e., toe and heel clearances. A template-based outsole was developed that incorporated an optical distance sensor located anatomically on the outsole and the magnetometer to measure the foot kinematics. The developed system was validated against the reference marker-based motion capture system (from Noraxon). The data from eight able-bodied participants were acquired simultaneously from both the systems (developed and the reference system) at three different walking speeds. A CoP based feedback was presented to the participants to shift the sagittal CoP anteriorly, posteriorly and normal to simulate the walking pattern of CP patients with three different foot landing strategies. Pearson's correlation coefficient of more than or equal to 0.62, root mean square error of less than or equal to 7.81 degrees and limit of agreement of more than or equal to 95% is found. Furthermore, a wireless wristband is developed and validated for real-time vibrotactile feedback. The measurement accuracy reported with outsole while participants simulated CP gait shows the potential of present work in real-time foot kinematics detection in CP patients. The instrumentation is wearable, low-cost, easy to use and implement.</pre>


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Rishabh Bajpai ◽  
Ashutosh Tiwari ◽  
Anant Jain ◽  
Deepak Joshi

<pre>Neuromuscular disorders in Cerebral Palsy (CP) patients lead to foot deformities and affect foot biomechanics leading to compromised gait. Thus, measurement of the foot kinematic measurement is of particular interest to understand and characterize the walking pattern among CP patients. The objective of the present work is to develop a wearable instrument to measure foot kinematics such as foot-to-ground angle in three-dimensional planes and to measure the foot clearance i.e., toe and heel clearances. A template-based outsole was developed that incorporated an optical distance sensor located anatomically on the outsole and the magnetometer to measure the foot kinematics. The developed system was validated against the reference marker-based motion capture system (from Noraxon). The data from eight able-bodied participants were acquired simultaneously from both the systems (developed and the reference system) at three different walking speeds. A CoP based feedback was presented to the participants to shift the sagittal CoP anteriorly, posteriorly and normal to simulate the walking pattern of CP patients with three different foot landing strategies. Pearson's correlation coefficient of more than or equal to 0.62, root mean square error of less than or equal to 7.81 degrees and limit of agreement of more than or equal to 95% is found. Furthermore, a wireless wristband is developed and validated for real-time vibrotactile feedback. The measurement accuracy reported with outsole while participants simulated CP gait shows the potential of present work in real-time foot kinematics detection in CP patients. The instrumentation is wearable, low-cost, easy to use and implement.</pre>


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Joseph Ciarrochi ◽  
Steven C. Hayes ◽  
Stefan G. Hofmann

The “protocols for syndromes” approach to evidence-based psychological intervention has failed the test of scientific progressivity. Process-based therapy provides an alternative model that is focused on treatment elements that target biopsychosocial processes of relevance to individual treatment goals. That shift in focus requires new, more integrative and idionomic models that identify key processes of change, using high temporal density measurement applied at the level of the person. Standard measurement validation approaches are inadequate to this challenge. The present study develops and provides a preliminary validation of a process-based assessment tool (PBAT) -- an item pool meant for intensive longitudinal clinical assessment. Developed using the Extended-Evolutionary Meta-Model of PBT and evaluated using an evolutionary algorithm appropriate for the evaluation of individual items, we administered the PBAT online to a representative sample of 598 participants (290 male; 302 female; 6 unidentified. Mage = 32.6). Analyses revealed that the PBAT distinguishes between positive and negative processes, links in theoretically coherent ways to need satisfaction and thwarting, and links to clinically relevant outcomes of sadness, anger, anxiety, stress, lack of social support, vitality, and health. The PBAT provides a beginning step towards developing a process-based tool that allows clinicians and researchers to select individual items or sets of items for individual-focused idionomic research and practice.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Rishabh Bajpai ◽  
Ashutosh Tiwari ◽  
Anant Jain ◽  
Deepak Joshi ◽  
Lalan Kumar

Neuromuscular disorders in Cerebral Palsy (CP) patients lead to foot deformities and affect foot biomechanics leading to compromised gait. The objective of the present work is to develop a wearable instrumentation to measure foot kinematics such as foot-to-ground angle in three-dimensional planes and to measure the foot clearance i.e., toe and heel clearances. A template-based outsole was developed that incorporated an optical distance sensor located anatomically on the outsole and the magnetometer to measure the foot kinematics. The developed system was validated against the reference marker-based motion capture system. The data from eight able-bodied participants were acquired simultaneously from both the systems at three different walking speeds. A CoP based feedback was presented to the participants to shift the sagittal CoP anteriorly, posteriorly and normal to simulate the walking pattern of CP patients with three different foot landing strategies. Pearson’s correlation coefficient of more than or equal to 0.62, root mean square error of less than or equal to 7.81 degrees and limit of agreement of more than or equal to 95% is found. The measurement accuracy reported with outsole while participants simulated CP gait shows the potential of present work in real-time foot kinematics detection in CP patients.


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