gas exchange
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Sheila D. P. da Silva ◽  
Gracielle P. de Souza ◽  
Agnaldo R. de M. Chaves ◽  
Marcelle A. da Silva ◽  
Rafaela R. de Souza ◽  

ABSTRACT Knowledge of how climatic conditions affect plant morphophysiology is essential for understanding how to manage the growth cycles of different crops. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the growing seasons in a semi-arid area on the morphophysiological variables of ornamental sunflower plants. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design in a split-plot arrangement with four replicates. Six cultivars (‘Bonito de Outono Sortido’, ‘Sol Noturno’, ‘Sol Vermelho’, ‘Jardim Amarelo Alto’, ‘Girassol F1 Sunbright Supreme’ and ‘Girassol F1 Vincents Choice’) were evaluated in the main plots and two different growing seasons (GS) in the subplots (GS1 - warm climate and GS2 - mild climate). Evaluations of gas exchange, chlorophyll indices, and leaf surface area were carried out at the reproductive stage (R5.5). The cultivation of ornamental sunflowers in semi-arid regions was significantly affected by the growing season. Changes in gas exchange variables and the morphophysiology of ornamental sunflower plants in the two growing seasons reflected the high phenotypic plasticity characteristic of this species. The cultivation of ornamental sunflowers under semi-arid conditions in the growing season, when air temperature and solar radiation are high, could be limited due to elevated transpiration rates. Therefore, it is recommended that they are grown mainly during the moderate climatic season in semi-arid regions.

José A. C. Wanderley ◽  
Carlos A. V. de Azevedo ◽  
Marcos E. B. Brito ◽  
Fagner N. Ferreira ◽  
Mailson A. Cordão ◽  

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the gas exchange of ‘Redondo Amarelo’ passion fruit seedlings under the mitigating action of nitrogen fertilization on the salinity of irrigation water. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse of the Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (CCTA-UFCG), Campus of Pombal, PB, Brazil, The experimental design was in randomized blocks, split plots, comprising five irrigation water electrical conductivities (plot) (ECw) (0.3; 1.0; 1.7; 2.4 and 3.1 dS m-1) and five doses of nitrogen (subplot) (60; 80; 100; 120 and 140% of 300 mg of N dm-3), in five blocks. Plants were grown in pots (Citropote JKS®) with volume of 3.780 mL, filled with soil, bovine manure, wood shavings in a proportion of 2:1:0.5 (mass basis), respectively. Water with salinity levels was applied in the period from 40 to 85 days after sowing. The internal CO2 concentration, transpiration, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis were measured at 55 and 70 days after sowing. There was an attenuating effect of nitrogen doses at irrigation water electrical conductivities of 1.7 and 2.4 dS m-1 on photosynthesis at 55 DAS. Irrigation water salinity reduces most of the variables evaluated, especially at the highest level studied (3.1 dS m-1).

José R. I. Silva ◽  
Eduardo Souza ◽  
Maurício L. de M. V. Leite ◽  
Genival Barros Junior ◽  
Aldo T. Sales ◽  

ABSTRACT Graywater is an alternative method to increase the water supply for agricultural production in semi-arid regions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different irrigation depths of graywater on the gas exchanges and phytomass of millet plants with and without organic fertilization. The research was conducted under greenhouse conditions in Serra Talhada municipality in semiarid region of Brazil, in a randomized complete block design with a factorial (4 × 2 + 1) plot and three replicates. The first factor corresponded to graywater irrigation depth equivalent to 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the available water content of the soil, and the second factor was the addition of bovine manure as fertilizer (0 and 34 Mg ha-1), and a control (irrigation with low-salinity water). Irrigation with graywater effluent did not promote adverse effects on gas exchanges and phytomass accumulation; however, it also did not provide enough nutrients to promote increase in these variables. The reduction in irrigation depth caused a decrease in gas exchange from 45 days after the application of the treatments. The basal tiller mass was the most favored plant component due to organic fertilization.

Luana L. de S. A. Veloso ◽  
André A. R. da Silva ◽  
Geovani S. de Lima ◽  
Carlos A. V. de Azevedo ◽  
Hans R. Gheyi ◽  

ABSTRACT The cultivation of irrigated soursop in semiarid Northeastern Brazil highlights the need for information regarding its responses to the salinity of irrigation water and the use of techniques that allow its exploration, such as the use of hydrogen peroxide. Thus, the study aimed to evaluate the effect of soaking of seeds and foliar application of hydrogen peroxide on soursop plant growth and physiology under conditions of salt stress. The study was conducted in lysimeters in a greenhouse, and the treatments were distributed in a randomized block design and 4 × 4 factorial scheme, with four values of electrical conductivity of the irrigation water - ECw (0.7, 1.7, 2.7, and 3.7 dS m-1) and four concentrations of H2O2 (0, 25, 50, and 75 μM), with three replicates and one plant per plot. H2O2 concentrations were applied via seed imbibition and foliar spray. Irrigation with water from 0.7 dS m-1 impairs gas exchange and absolute growth rates of plant height and stem diameter and relative growth rate in height of soursop plants. Concentrations of 35, 33 and 23 µM of hydrogen peroxide favored the relative and absolute growth rates of plant height and transpiration, respectively. Compared to the aerial part, the root of soursop plants is more affected when irrigated with water from 1.6 dS m-1.

Tormod T. C. Rowe ◽  
Martin S. Gutbrod ◽  
Philip G. D. Matthews

It has been hypothesised that insects display discontinuous gas-exchange cycles (DGCs) due to hysteresis in their ventilatory control, where CO2-sensitive respiratory chemoreceptors respond to changes in hemolymph PCO2 only after some delay. If correct, DGCs would be a manifestation of an unstable feedback loop between chemoreceptors and ventilation causing PCO2 to oscillate around some fixed threshold value: PCO2 above this ventilatory threshold would stimulate excessive hyperventilation, driving PCO2 below the threshold and causing a subsequent apnoea. This hypothesis was tested by implanting micro-optodes into the hemocoel of Madagascar hissing cockroaches and measuring hemolymph PO2 and PCO2 simultaneously during continuous and discontinuous gas exchange. The mean hemolymph PCO2 of 1.9 kPa measured during continuous gas exchange was assumed to represent the threshold level stimulating ventilation, and this was compared with PCO2 levels recorded during DGCs elicited by decapitation. Cockroaches were also exposed to hypoxic (PO2 10 kPa) and hypercapnic (PCO2 2 kPa) gas mixtures to manipulate hemolymph PO2 and PCO2. Decapitated cockroaches maintained DGCs even when their hemolymph PCO2 was forced above or below the putative ∼2 kPa ventilation threshold, demonstrating that the characteristic oscillation between apnoea and gas exchange is not driven by a lag between changing hemolymph PCO2 and a PCO2 chemoreceptor with a fixed ventilatory threshold. However, it was observed that the gas exchange periods within the DGC were altered to enhance O2 uptake and CO2 release during hypoxia and hypercapnia exposure. This indicates that while respiratory chemoreceptors do modulate ventilatory activity in response to hemolymph gas levels, their role in initiating or terminating the gas exchange periods within the DGC remains unclear.

eLife ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Xue-Ping Wang ◽  
Deidra M Balchak ◽  
Clayton Gentilcore ◽  
Nathan L Clark ◽  
Ossama B Kashlan

Vertebrates evolved mechanisms for sodium conservation and gas exchange in conjunction with migration from aquatic to terrestrial habitats. Epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) function is critical to systems responsible for extracellular fluid homeostasis and gas exchange. ENaC is activated by cleavage at multiple specific extracellular polybasic sites, releasing inhibitory tracts from the channel’s α and γ subunits. We found that proximal and distal polybasic tracts in ENaC subunits coevolved, consistent with the dual cleavage requirement for activation observed in mammals. Polybasic tract pairs evolved with the terrestrial migration and the appearance of lungs, coincident with the ENaC activator aldosterone, and appeared independently in the a and g subunits. In summary, sites within ENaC for protease activation developed in vertebrates when renal Na+ conservation and alveolar gas exchange was required for terrestrial survival.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Yaoshan Dun ◽  
Shane M. Hammer ◽  
Joshua R. Smith ◽  
Mary C. MacGillivray ◽  
Benjamin S. Simmons ◽  

Objective: We aimed to determine the cardiorespiratory responses during, and adaptations to, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) prescribed using ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in patients after myocardial infarction (MI) during early outpatient cardiac rehabilitation (CR).Methods: We prospectively recruited 29 MI patients after percutaneous coronary intervention who began CR within 2 weeks after hospital discharge. Eleven patients (seven men; four women; age: 61 ± 11 yrs) who completed ≥24 supervised HIIT sessions with metabolic gas exchange measured during HIIT once weekly for 8 weeks and performed pre- and post- CR cardiopulmonary exercise tests were included in the study. Each HIIT session consisted of 5–8 high-intensity intervals [HIIs, 1-min RPE 14–17 (Borg 6–20 scale)] and low-intensity intervals (LIIs, 4-min RPE < 12). Metabolic gas exchange, heart rate (HR), and blood pressure during HIIT were measured.Results: The mean oxygen uptake (V˙O2) during HIIs across 88 sessions of HIITs [91 (14)% of V˙O2peak, median (interquartile range, IQR)] was significantly higher than the lower limit of target V˙O2 zone (75% of V˙O2peak) recommended for the HII (p < 0.001). Exercise intensity during RPE-prescribed HIITs, determined as %V˙O2peak, was highly repeatable with intra-class correlations of 0.95 (95% CI 0.86– 0.99, p < 0.001). For cardiorespiratory adaptations from the first to the last session of HIIT, treadmill speed, treadmill grade, treadmill power, V˙O2HII, %V˙O2peak, and VE during HIIs were increased (all p < 0.05), while no difference was found for HR, %HRpeak and systolic blood pressure (all p > 0.05). V˙O2peak increased by an average of 9% from pre-CR to post-CR. No adverse events occurred.Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that HIIT can be effectively prescribed using RPE in MI patients during early outpatient CR. Participation in RPE-prescribed HIIT increases exercise workload and V˙O2 during exercise training without increased perception of effort or excessive increases in heart rate or blood pressure.

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