fine roots
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2022 ◽  
Vol 113 ◽  
pp. 118-131
Author(s):  
Pin Li ◽  
Rongbin Yin ◽  
Huimin Zhou ◽  
Sheng Xu ◽  
Zhaozhong Feng

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 93
Author(s):  
Linjia Huang ◽  
Ziqian Xia ◽  
Yang Cao

(1) Background: Fine roots (≤2 mm in diameter) play a critical role in forest ecosystem ecological processes and has been widely identified as a major research topic. This study aimed to synthesize the global literature based on the Web of Science Core Collection scientific database from 1992 to 2020 and summarize the research trends and prospects on research of fine roots in forest ecosystems. A quantitative bibliometric analysis was presented with information related to authors, countries, institutions, journals, top cited publications, research hotspots, trends, and prospects. (2) Results: The results showed that the amount of publications has increased exponentially. USA, China, and Germany were the most productive countries. Chinese Academy of Science was the most productive institution on fine roots research and also has a key position in both domestic and international cooperation networks. Leuschner C and Hertel D were the most productive authors. Six core journals were confirmed from 471 journals based on Bradford’s law. The distribution of the frequency of authors and the number of their publications were fitted with Lotka’s Law. Author collaboration network was mainly limited in the same countries/territories and institutions. Keywords analysis indicates that the hotspots are biomass, decomposition, and respiration of fine roots, especially under climate change. (3) Conclusion: Our results provide a better understanding of global characteristics and trends of fine roots that have emerged in this field, which could offer reference for future research.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Cunguo Wang ◽  
Ivano Brunner ◽  
Junni Wang ◽  
Wei Guo ◽  
Zhenzhen Geng ◽  
...  

Trees can build fine-root systems with high variation in root size (e.g., fine-root diameter) and root number (e.g., branching pattern) to optimize belowground resource acquisition in forest ecosystems. Compared with leaves, which are visible above ground, information about the distribution and inequality of fine-root size and about key associations between fine-root size and number is still limited. We collected 27,573 first-order fine-roots growing out of 3,848 second-order fine-roots, covering 51 tree species in three temperate forests (Changbai Mountain, CBS; Xianrendong, XRD; and Maoershan, MES) in Northeastern China. We investigated the distribution and inequality of fine-root length, diameter and area (fine-root size), and their trade-off with fine-root branching intensity and ratio (fine-root number). Our results showed a strong right-skewed distribution in first-order fine-root size across various tree species. Unimodal frequency distributions were observed in all three of the sampled forests for first-order fine-root length and area and in CBS and XRD for first-order fine-root diameter, whereas a marked bimodal frequency distribution of first-order fine-root diameter appeared in MES. Moreover, XRD had the highest and MES had the lowest inequality values (Gini coefficients) in first-order fine-root diameter. First-order fine-root size showed a consistently linear decline with increasing root number. Our findings suggest a common right-skewed distribution with unimodality or bimodality of fine-root size and a generalized trade-off between fine-root size and number across the temperate tree species. Our results will greatly improve our thorough understanding of the belowground resource acquisition strategies of temperate trees and forests.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Oscar J. Valverde‐Barrantes
Keyword(s):  

2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Dongmei Yang ◽  
Xiaolin Wang ◽  
Mengqi Yin ◽  
Yongjiang Zhang ◽  
Guoquan Peng ◽  
...  

We derived a steady-state model of whole root pressure generation through the combined action of all parallel segments of fine roots. This may be the first complete analytical solution for root pressure, which can be applied to complex roots/shoots. The osmotic volume of a single root is equal to that of the vessel lumen in fine roots and adjacent apoplastic spaces. Water uptake occurs via passive osmosis and active solute uptake (J_s^*, osmol s-1), resulting in the osmolal concentration Cr (mol·kg-1 of water) at a fixed osmotic volume. Solute loss occurs via two passive processes: radial diffusion of solute Km (Cr-Csoil), where Km is the diffusional constant and Csoil is the soil-solute concentration) from fine roots to soil and mass flow of solute and water into the whole plant from the end of the fine roots. The proposed model predicts the quadratic function of root pressure P_r^2+bP_r+c=0, where b and c are the functions of plant hydraulic resistance, soil water potential, solute flux, and gravitational potential. The present study investigates the theoretical dependencies of Pr on the factors detailed above and demonstrates the root pressure-mediated distribution of water through the hydraulic architecture of a 6.8-m-tall bamboo shoot.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yue Pang ◽  
Jing Tian ◽  
Dexiang Wang

Abstract Background: Fine roots make critical contributions to carbon stocks and terrestrial productivity, and multidiameter-class fine roots exhibit functional heterogeneity. However, the dynamic characteristics of multidiameter-class fine roots at different soil depths following thinning disturbances are poorly understood. We investigated the biomass, production, mortality and turnover rate of < 0.5 mm, 0.5–1 mm and 1–2 mm fine roots at 0-20 cm, 20-40 cm and 40-60 cm soil depths under five thinning intensities (0%, 15%, 30%, 45%, and 60%) in a secondary forest in the Qinling Mountains. Results: The biomass, production and turnover rate of < 0.5 mm fine roots fluctuated with increasing thinning intensity, while 0.5-1 mm and 1-2 mm fine root biomass significantly decreased. Thinning measures had no effects on fine root necromass (except for T4) or mortality. The fine root dynamic characteristics in deeper soils were more sensitive to thinning measures. Principal component analysis results show that increased < 0.5 mm fine root biomass and production resulted from increased shrub and herb diversity and biomass and decreased soil nutrient availability, stand volume and litter biomass, whereas 0.5-1 mm and 1-2 mm fine root biomass showed the opposite trends and change mechanisms. Conclusions: Our results provide evidence of the positive effect of thinning on very fine root (< 0.5 mm) biomass and production and the negative effect on thicker fine roots (0.5-1, 1-2 mm) or all fine root (< 2 mm) biomass. From the perspective of fine root biomass and productivity, T2 (30%) is recommended for use in secondary forests of the Qinling Mountains. Moreover, our results suggest that thinning practices have varied effects on the dynamic characteristics of multidiameter-class fine roots.


Forests ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1766
Author(s):  
Marta Damszel ◽  
Hanna Szmidla ◽  
Katarzyna Sikora ◽  
Agata Młodzińska ◽  
Sławomir Piętka ◽  
...  

The mycobiota of the fine roots of Pseudotsuga menziesii were studied as a measure of the adaptation of this alien species to new soil and climatic conditions. We hypothesized that after approximately 130 years of growth in a given habitat, the fungal community colonizing the fine roots of introduced trees would resemble the biota of Pinus sylvestris and Fagus sylvatica in surrounding stands of similar age and site conditions. The genetic material isolated from the fine roots was subjected to metagenomic analysis. We recorded 33, 97 and 95 OTUs exclusively from root samples of Douglas fir, beech and pine, respectively; 124 were common to all sample types. The biota from the roots of P. menziesii featured a less diverse taxonomic composition and were characterized by the highest proportion of symbiotrophs (71.8%) versus saprothrophs (5.6%) and pathogens (0.24%). Some fungal taxa (19) in the roots of P. menziesii were common with the biota in the roots of other adjacent trees, while some (7) were unique to Douglas fir. Our results indicate a locally differentiated strategy of naturalness of fungi inhabiting soil and roots of P. menziesii, although 130 years have passed since the introduction of the species.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Li Ji ◽  
Yue Liu ◽  
Jun Wang ◽  
Zhimin Lu ◽  
Lijie Zhang ◽  
...  

Non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) facilitate plant adaptation to drought stress, characterize tree growth and survival ability, and buffer against external disturbances. Previous studies have focused on the distribution and dynamics of NSCs among different plant organs under drought conditions. However, discussion about the NSC levels of fine roots in different root branch orders is limited, especially the relationship between fine root trait variation and NSC content. The objective of the study was to shed light on the synergistic variation in fine root traits and NSC content in different root branch orders under different drought and soil substrate conditions. The 2-year-old Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. potted seedlings were planted in three different soil substrates (humus, loam, and sandy–loam soil) and subjected to four drought intensities (CK, mild drought, moderate drought, and severe drought) for 2 months. With increasing drought intensity, the biomass of fine roots decreased significantly. Under the same drought intensity, seedlings in sandy–loam soil had higher root biomass, and the coefficient of variation of 5th-order roots (37.4, 44.5, and 53% in humus, loam, and sandy–loam soil, respectively) was higher than that of lower-order roots. All branch order roots of seedlings in humus soil had the largest specific root length (SRL) and specific root surface area (SRA), in addition to the lowest diameter. With increasing drought intensity, the SRL and average diameter (AD) of all root branch orders increased and decreased, respectively. The fine roots in humus soil had a higher soluble sugar (SS) content and lower starch (ST) content compared to the loam and sandy–loam soil. Additionally, the SS and ST contents of fine roots showed decreasing and increasing tendencies with increasing drought intensities, respectively. SS and ST explained the highest degree of the total variation in fine root traits, which were 32 and 32.1%, respectively. With increasing root order, the explanation of the variation in root traits by ST decreased (only 6.8% for 5th-order roots). The observed response in terms of morphological traits of different fine root branch orders of F. mandshurica seedlings to resource fluctuations ensures the maintenance of a low cost-benefit ratio in the root system development.


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