growing seasons
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Sheila D. P. da Silva ◽  
Gracielle P. de Souza ◽  
Agnaldo R. de M. Chaves ◽  
Marcelle A. da Silva ◽  
Rafaela R. de Souza ◽  

ABSTRACT Knowledge of how climatic conditions affect plant morphophysiology is essential for understanding how to manage the growth cycles of different crops. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the growing seasons in a semi-arid area on the morphophysiological variables of ornamental sunflower plants. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design in a split-plot arrangement with four replicates. Six cultivars (‘Bonito de Outono Sortido’, ‘Sol Noturno’, ‘Sol Vermelho’, ‘Jardim Amarelo Alto’, ‘Girassol F1 Sunbright Supreme’ and ‘Girassol F1 Vincents Choice’) were evaluated in the main plots and two different growing seasons (GS) in the subplots (GS1 - warm climate and GS2 - mild climate). Evaluations of gas exchange, chlorophyll indices, and leaf surface area were carried out at the reproductive stage (R5.5). The cultivation of ornamental sunflowers in semi-arid regions was significantly affected by the growing season. Changes in gas exchange variables and the morphophysiology of ornamental sunflower plants in the two growing seasons reflected the high phenotypic plasticity characteristic of this species. The cultivation of ornamental sunflowers under semi-arid conditions in the growing season, when air temperature and solar radiation are high, could be limited due to elevated transpiration rates. Therefore, it is recommended that they are grown mainly during the moderate climatic season in semi-arid regions.

2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
M. M. Alenazi ◽  
M. M. Khandaker

Abstract Responses of three tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) hybrids viz. 'Luanova', 'Savarona' and 'Tessera' to various doses (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 g L-1) of soil application of humic acid (HA) were evaluated in terms of plant growth, productivity and quality of fruits, under greenhouse conditions, during 2011-12 and 2012-13. In addition to improved quality characteristics, higher values for yield and yield components were recorded for tomato fruits harvested from plants of 'Tessera' cultivar compared to those harvested from other hybrids tested, regardless of growing seasons. Plants from 'Luanova' cultivar were, however, earlier in fruiting with higher number of fruits per plant. Soil application of HA presented positive effects on yield and physicochemical quality of tomato fruits irrespective of the dose of HA and the cultivar investigated, in both seasons. Soil application of HA at higher dose 1.5 g L-1 exhibited better results in all the three tomato cultivars tested, in terms of their vegetative and reproductive growth, and significantly improved the physicochemical quality of their fruits. Conclusively, the tomato hybrid 'Tessera' was found suitable for cultivation under greenhouse conditions while soil application of aqueous solution of HA @ 1.5 g L-1 substantially resulted in higher production of quality tomato fruits.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 968
Tuo Han ◽  
Qi Feng ◽  
Tengfei Yu ◽  
Xiaofang Zhang ◽  
Xiaomei Yang ◽  

Stomatal conductance (gs), the process that governs plant carbon uptake and water loss, is fundamental to most Land Surface Models (LSMs). With global change accelerating, more attention should be paid to investigating stomatal behavior, especially in extremely arid areas. In this study, gas exchange measurements and environmental/biological variables observations during growing seasons in 2016 and 2017 were combined to investigate diurnal and seasonal characteristics of gs and the applicability of the optimal stomatal conductance model in a desert oasis vineyard. The results showed that the responses of gs to environmental factors (photosynthesis active radiation, PAR; vapor pressure deficit, VPD; and temperature, T) formed hysteresis loops in the daytime. The stomatal conductance slope, g1, a parameter in the unified stomatal optimal model, varied in different growing seasons and correlated with the soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance (KL). These results indicated the potential bias when using a constant g1 value to simulate gs and highlighted that the water-use strategy of oasis plants might not be consistent throughout the entire growing season. Our findings further help to achieve a better understanding of stomata behavior in responding to climate change and encourage future efforts toward a more accurate parameterization of gs to improve the modeling of LSMs.

Agriculture ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 114
Gaetano Pandino ◽  
Sara Lombardo ◽  
Lo Monaco Antonino ◽  
Claudia Ruta ◽  
Giovanni Mauromicale

The micropropagation appears to be a valid alternative method for the production of large-scale, phenotypically homogeneous, and disease-free plants, particularly for spring globe artichoke genotypes. Nevertheless, micropropagated plants have some problems during the acclimatization in field environments. The inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi appeared to overcome the transplanting stress. Therefore, a comparison was drawn between the field performances of different vegetative propagation techniques (micropropagated/mycorrhized and offshoots cultivation) of early globe artichoke clones over two growing seasons. The micropropagation/mycorrhization appeared to deliver a better field performance in terms of both plant growth and productivity traits as compared with offshoots cultivated. In particular, the micropopagated/mycorrhized plants exhibited the highest vegetative growth values than the offshoots of the cultivated ones, such as the plant height and the main floral stem length. The micropopagated/mycorrhized plants were also more productive, exceeding the head yield of offshoots cultivated ones by about 63%. However, the micropopagated/mycorrhized plants accumulated almost a month late on the first harvest respect to offshoots cultivated ones. Our data also showed that the effects of the new proposed propagation method were genotype- and season-dependent. Accordingly, some plant growth and productivity traits showed significant ‘propagation method × genotype’ and ‘propagation method × growing season’ interaction. This study revealed that the micropropagation, as well as the mycorrhization, could represent an efficient and sustainable cropping system to reintroduce and increase the productivity of autochthons landraces.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262445
Chao Zhang ◽  
Min Tang ◽  
Xiaodong Gao ◽  
Qiang Ling ◽  
Pute Wu

Various land use types have been implemented by the government in the loess hilly region of China to facilitate sustainable land use. Understanding the variability in soil moisture and temperature under various sloping land use types can aid the ecological restoration and sustainable utilization of sloping land resources. The objective of this study was to use approximate entropy (ApEn) to reveal the variations in soil moisture and temperature under different land use types, because ApEn only requires a short data series to obtain robust estimates, with a strong anti-interference ability. An experiment was conducted with four typical land use scenarios (i.e., soybean sloping field, maize terraced field, jujube orchard, and grassland) over two consecutive plant growing seasons (2014 and 2015), and the time series of soil moisture and temperature within different soil depth layers of each land use type were measured in both seasons. The results showed that the changing amplitude, degree of variation, and active layer of soil moisture in the 0–160 cm soil depth layer, as well as the changing amplitude and degree of variation of soil temperature in the 0–100 cm soil layer increased in the jujube orchard over the two growing seasons. The changing amplitude, degree of variation, and active layer of soil moisture all decreased in the maize terraced field, as did the changing amplitude and degree of variation of soil temperature. The ApEn of the soil moisture series was the lowest in the 0–160 cm soil layer in the maize terraced field, and the ApEn of the soil temperature series was the highest in the 0–100 cm layer in the jujube orchard in the two growing seasons. Finally, the jujube orchard soil moisture and temperature change process were more variable, whereas the changes in the maize terraced field were more stable, with a stable soil moisture and temperature. This work highlights the usefulness of ApEn for revealing soil moisture and temperature changes and to guide the management and development of sloping fields.

Andrew Scott ◽  
Roger Murray ◽  
Yuan-Ching Tien ◽  
Edward Topp

The present study evaluated if enteric bacteria or antibiotic resistance genes carried in fecal amendments contaminate the hay at harvest, representing a potential route of exposure to ruminants that consume the hay. In field experiments, dairy manure was applied to a hay field for three successive growing seasons, and biosolids applied to a hay field for one growing season. Various enteric bacteria in the amendments were enumerated by viable plate count, and selected gene targets were quantified by qPCR. Key findings include the following: At harvest, hay receiving dairy manure or biosolids did not carry more viable enteric bacteria than did hay from unamended control plots. Fermentation of hay did not result in a detectable increase in viable enteric bacteria. The application of dairy manure or biosolids did result in a few gene targets being more abundant on hay at the first harvest. Fermentation of hay did result in an increase in the abundance of gene targets, but this occurred both with hay from amended and control plots. Overall, application of fecal amendments will result in an increase in the abundance of some gene targets associated with antibiotic resistance on first cut hay.

Oecologia ◽  
2022 ◽  
Seton Bachle ◽  
Jesse B. Nippert

AbstractGrassland ecosystems are historically shaped by climate, fire, and grazing which are essential ecological drivers. These grassland drivers influence morphology and productivity of grasses via physiological processes, resulting in unique water and carbon-use strategies among species and populations. Leaf-level physiological responses in plants are constrained by the underlying anatomy, previously shown to reflect patterns of carbon assimilation and water-use in leaf tissues. However, the magnitude to which anatomy and physiology are impacted by grassland drivers remains unstudied. To address this knowledge gap, we sampled from three locations along a latitudinal gradient in the mesic grassland region of the central Great Plains, USA during the 2018 (drier) and 2019 (wetter) growing seasons. We measured annual biomass and forage quality at the plot level, while collecting physiological and anatomical traits at the leaf-level in cattle grazed and ungrazed locations at each site. Effects of ambient drought conditions superseded local grazing treatments and reduced carbon assimilation and total productivity in A. gerardii. Leaf-level anatomical traits, particularly those associated with water-use, varied within and across locations and between years. Specifically, xylem area increased when water was more available (2019), while xylem resistance to cavitation was observed to increase in the drier growing season (2018). Our results highlight the importance of multi-year studies in natural systems and how trait plasticity can serve as vital tool and offer insight to understanding future grassland responses from climate change as climate played a stronger role than grazing in shaping leaf physiology and anatomy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Daniel C. Olk ◽  
Dana L. Dinnes ◽  
Chad R. Callaway

Field evaluations of commercial humic products have seldom involved replication across location or year. To evaluate the consistency of humic product efficacy in field conditions, we determined the effects of a humic product on maize (Zea mays L.) growth in high-yielding Midwestern (US) fields through the following two extensive approaches: (i) replicated strip plots in five site—year combinations from 2010 to 2013; and (ii) demonstration strips in 30–35 production fields annually from 2009 to 2011 that covered major areas of Iowa. Mechanized combine measurements of grain yield showed increases of 0.2–0.4 Mg ha–1 (1–4%) with humic product application for all five site—year combinations of the replicated strip plots. Six of 10 humic treatments within the fields responded positively (P < 0.07), and the positive responses of two more treatments approached significance at the benchmark of P = 0.10. In the demonstration strips, maize grain weight in hand-collected samples increased significantly (P < 0.004) with humic product application in each of the three growing seasons, and across all the three seasons by 6.5% (P < 0.001). Grain weight increased numerically for 76 of the 98 demonstration strips. Yield component analysis for both the replicated strip plots and the demonstration strips attributed the yield boosts largely to increased ear length, especially of the shorter ears. Humic product application caused significantly (P < 0.10) greater total leaf area in all eight field treatments at three site—year combinations. Humic product application did not consistently affect nutrient concentrations of the grain or stover or any measured soil property. These results represent among the widest geographic evaluations published on field efficacy of a humic product. They demonstrate the capability of a humic product to improve maize growth in high-yielding conditions.

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 160
Mark F. Richards ◽  
Lancelot Maphosa ◽  
Aaron L. Preston

Chickpea growth, development and grain yield are affected by a range of climatic and environmental factors. Experiments were conducted across four sowing dates from mid-April to the end of May, over two years at Trangie in central western New South Wales (NSW), and Leeton, Wagga Wagga and Yanco (one year) in southern NSW, to examine the influence of sowing time on biomass accumulation, grain yield and plant yield components. Climatic and experimental location data were recorded during the growing seasons. Early sowing (mid-April) resulted in taller plants, higher bottom and top pod heights, fewer pods, more unfilled pods and greater biomass accumulation, but low harvest index due to reduced grain yield compared with late sowing (end of May). Grain number was positively correlated with grain yield and was the main yield component accounting for most of the variation in yield. There was largely a positive correlation between biomass and yield, especially with delayed sowing except for Leeton experiments. This study concludes that sowing around the end of April in central western NSW and mid-May in southern NSW is conducive to higher grain yield as it minimises exposure to abiotic stresses at critical growth periods and allows efficient conversion of biomass to grain yield.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (4) ◽  
pp. 15-18
Nadezhda Kasatkina ◽  
Zhanna Nelyubina

Meadow clover remains the main forage crop in the middle Urals with great potential. An urgent problem is the development and improvement of the technology of this crop cultivation, including the search for adapted varieties. The aim of the research is to estimate the fodder and seed productivity recommended by the originators of meadow clover varieties of Russian and foreign selection VIK 77, Diplo, Lestris, Ranniy 2, Kudesnik in the Middle Ural region. The studies were carried out in 2017-2019 in the forest-steppe zone of the Udmurt Republic on sod-medium-podzolic medium loamy soil. The Dymkovsky variety included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements in the Volga-Vyatka region was used as a standard. Clover varieties were sown in 2017, comprehensive study in 2018-2019. The meteorological conditions of the growing seasons during the study years were different: 2017 and 2019 - over moistened (hydrothermal coefficient – 1.97 and 1.73), 2018 - dry (hydrothermal coefficient – 0.89). Winter hardiness of meadow clover varieties was estimated at 4.5 points. Varieties Diplo, Lestris and Ranniy 2 reached mowing ripeness in 58-63 days, varieties Dymkovsky, VIK 77 and Kudesnik – in 66-70 days. The varieties Diplo, Ranniy 2 and Kudesnik provided a dry matter yield of 6.2-6.8 t/ha, on average for two years of using meadow clover grass-stand. The highest yield of metabolizable energy (51.2 and 55.0 GJ/ha), digestible protein (0.44 and 0.46 t/ha) and feed units (3.79 and 4.09 thousand feed units/ha) was found in the standard variety Dymkovskiy and the tetraploid variety Kudesnik. Seed productivity of cultivars of meadow clover of the 1st year of use was at the level of 137-314 kg/ha, the highest - 314 kg/ha in the standard variety Dymkovsky

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