grid connection
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Salman Harasis ◽  
Saher Albatran ◽  
Eyad Almaita ◽  
Khaled Alzaareer ◽  
Qusay Salem ◽  

<p>Controlling weak grid-connected systems is very challenging. In transient, frequency and voltage oscillations may lead to voltage and/or frequency stability problems and finally lead to system collapse. During steady-state operation and at the point of common coupling (PCC), voltage degradation and grid voltage background harmonics restrict the inverter's functionality, reduce the power flow capability and cause poor power quality. With weak grid connection, grid impedance variance will contaminate the voltage waveform by harmonics and augment the resonance, destabilizing the inverter operation. In this paper, complete mathematical modeling is carried out and state feedback-plus-integral control is implemented to support the stabilization of the system. The proposed controller is adopted to provide a smooth transient under sudden load change by controlling the injected grid current under different grid inductance values. Furthermore, the proposed control is used to reduce the order and size of the inverter output filter while maintaining system stability. The proposed control has been compared with the conventional proportional integral (PI) controller under different scenarios to validate its effectiveness and to strengthen its implementation as a simple controller for distributed generator applications.</p>

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Zhengxun Guo ◽  
Bo Yang ◽  
Yiming Han ◽  
Tingyi He ◽  
Peng He ◽  

Phase-locked loop (PLL) is a fundamental and crucial component of a photovoltaic (PV) connected inverter, which plays a significant role in high-quality grid connection by fast and precise phase detection and lock. Several novel critical structure improvements and proportional-integral (PI) parameter optimization techniques of PLL were proposed to reduce shock current and promote the quality of grid connection at present. However, the present techniques ignored the differential element of PLL and did not acquire ideal results. Thus, this paper adopts Aquila optimizer algorithm to regulate the proportional-integral-differential (PID) parameters of PLL for smoothing power fluctuation and improving grid connection quality. Three regulation strategies (i.e., PLL regulation, global regulation, and step regulation) are carefully designed to systematically and comprehensively evaluate the performance of the proposed method based on a simulation model in MATLAB/Simulink, namely, “250-kW Grid-Connected PV Array”. Simulation results indicate that PLL regulation strategy can effectively decrease power fluctuation and overshoot with a short response time, low complexity, and time cost. Particularly, the Error(P) and the maximum deviation of output power under optimal parameters obtained by PLL strategy are decreased by 418 W and 12.5 kW compared with those under initial parameters, respectively.

Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 224
Li Yu ◽  
Ke Meng ◽  
Wang Zhang ◽  
Yuchen Zhang

The national electricity market (NEM) of Australia is reforming via the rapid uptake of variable renewable energy (VRE) integration concurrent with the retirement of conventional synchronous generation. System strength has emerged as a prominent challenge and constraint to power system stability and ongoing grid connection of VRE such as solar and wind. In order to facilitate decarbonization pathways, Australia is the first country to evolve system strength and inertia frameworks and assessment methods to accommodate energy transition barriers, and other parts of the world are now beginning to follow the same approach. With the evolvement of the system strength framework as a new trending strategy to break the transition barriers raised by renewable energy project development and grid connection studies, this paper provides a high-level overview of system strength, covering such fundamental principles as its definition, attributes, and manifestations, as well as industry commentary, cutting-edge technologies and works currently underway for the delivery of a secure and reliable electricity system with the rapid integration of inverter-based resources (IBRs) in the NEM grid. The intent of this study is to provide a comprehensive reference on the engineering practices of the system strength challenge along with complementary technical, regulatory, and industry perspectives.

Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 133
Ibrahim Al-Wesabi ◽  
Zhijian Fang ◽  
Zhiguo Wei ◽  
Hanlin Dong

Large electrolytic capacitors used in grid-connected and stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) applications for power decoupling purposes are unreliable because of their short lifetime. Film capacitors can be used instead of electrolytic capacitors if the energy storage requirement of the power conditioning units (PCUs) is reduced, since they offer better reliability and have a longer lifetime. Film capacitors have a lower capacitance than electrolytic capacitors, causing enormous frequency ripples on the DC-link voltage and affecting the standalone photovoltaic system’s dynamic performance. This research provided novel direct sliding mode controllers (DSMCs) for minimizing DC-link capacitor, regulating various components of the PV/BES system that assists to manage the DC-link voltage with a small capacitor. DSMCs were combined with the perturb and observe (P&O) method for DC boost converters to increase the photovoltaic system’s dynamic performance, and regulate the battery’s bidirectional converter (BDC) to overcome the DC-link voltage instabilities caused via a lower DC-link capacitor. The system is intended to power both AC and DC loads in places without grid connection. The system’s functions are divided into four modes, dependent on energy supply and demand, and the battery’s state of charge. The findings illustrate the controllers’ durability and the system’s outstanding performance. The testing was carried out on the MT real-time control platform NI PXIE-1071 utilizing Hardware-In-The-Loop experiments and MATLAB/Simulink.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 104
Henning Schlachter ◽  
Stefan Geißendörfer ◽  
Karsten von Maydell ◽  
Carsten Agert

Due to the increasing penetration of renewable energies in lower voltage level, there is a need to develop new control strategies to stabilize the grid voltage. For this, an approach using deep learning to recognize electric loads in voltage profiles is presented. This is based on the idea to classify loads in the local grid environment of an inverter’s grid connection point to provide information for adaptive control strategies. The proposed concept uses power profiles to systematically generate training data. During hyper-parameter optimizations, multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and convolutional neural networks (CNN) are trained, validated, and evaluated to determine the best task configurations. The approach is demonstrated on the example recognition of two electric vehicles. Finally, the influence of the distance in a test grid from the transformer and the active load to the measurement point, respectively, onto the recognition accuracy is investigated. A larger distance between the inverter and the transformer improved the recognition, while a larger distance between the inverter and active loads decreased the accuracy. The developed concept shows promising results in the simulation environment for adaptive voltage control.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (5) ◽  
pp. 8-13
Proenza Y. Roger ◽  
Camejo C. José Emilio ◽  
Ramos H. Rubén

The results obtained from the validation of the procedure ‟Quantification of the degradation index of Photovoltaic Grid Connection Systems” are presented, using statistical parameters, which corroborate its accuracy, achieving a coefficient of determination of 0.9896, a percentage of the root of the mean square of the error RMSPE = 1.498% and a percentage of the mean absolute error MAPE = 1.15%, evidencing the precision of the procedure.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (24) ◽  
pp. 8542
Julian Röder ◽  
Georg Jacobs ◽  
Tobias Duda ◽  
Dennis Bosse ◽  
Fabian Herzog

Electrical faults can lead to transient and dynamic excitations of the electromagnetic generator torque in wind turbines. The fast changes in the generator torque lead to load oscillations and rapid changes in the speed of rotation. The combination of dynamic load reversals and changing rotational speeds can be detrimental to gearbox components. This paper shows, via simulation, that the smearing risk increases due to the electrical faults for cylindrical roller bearings on the high speed shaft of a wind turbine research nacelle. A grid fault was examined for the research nacelle with a doubly fed induction generator concept. Furthermore, a converter fault was analyzed for the full size converter concept. Both wind turbine grid connection concepts used the same mechanical drive train. Thus, the mechanical component loading was comparable. During the grid fault, the risk of smearing increased momentarily by a maximum of around 1.8 times. During the converter fault, the risk of smearing increased by around 4.9 times. Subsequently, electrical faults increased the risk of damage to the wind turbine gearbox bearings, especially on the high speed stage.

Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (24) ◽  
pp. 3098
Xinke Huang ◽  
Huan Wang ◽  
Yu Zhou ◽  
Xinlei Zhang ◽  
Yibo Wang ◽  

Photovoltaic (PV) power plant collection and connection to a high voltage direct current (HVDC) grid has many advantages. Compared with the traditional AC collection and grid-connection scheme, it can reduce the power conversion links and improve the system efficiency. As one of the most important devices in the application of a PV HVDC collection and grid-connection system, a high voltage, large capacity, high step-up ratio DC/DC converter is the critical technology. A DC/DC converter scheme based on a boost full bridge isolated power module cascaded in input parallel output series (IPOS) structure is proposed to meet the technical requirements of PV power conversion with high voltage, large capacity, and high step-up ratio. The operation mode of the power module is analyzed, the soft switching method is proposed, and the constraint to realize the soft switching of the power module is deduced. Aiming to resolve the problem of multi-module voltage and current equalization in a cascaded DC/DC converter, a distributed module equalization control strategy is proposed to realize the reliable operation of a power module and converter. A 5 kV/80 kW standard power module is developed, the DC/DC converter experimental platform is built, and the proposed system scheme and control strategy are verified by experiments. Based on a 14-power module input parallel output series connection, a ±30 kV/1 MW PV DC/DC converter is developed, a ±30 kV PV HVDC collection and grid-connection demonstration system is established, and the experimental test is completed to realize the stable operation of the system.

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