Continuous-variable measure-device-independent quantum key distribution (CV-MDI QKD) is proposed to remove all imperfections originating from detection. However, there are still some inevitable imperfections in a practical CV-MDI QKD system. For example, there is a fluctuating channel transmittance in the complex communication environments. Here we investigate the security of the system under the effects of the fluctuating channel transmittance, where the transmittance is regarded as a fixed value related to communication distance in theory. We first discuss the parameter estimation in fluctuating channel transmittance based on these establishing of channel models, which has an obvious deviation compared with the estimated parameters in the ideal case. Then, we show the evaluated results when the channel transmittance respectively obeys the two-point distribution and the uniform distribution. In particular, the two distributions can be easily realized under the manipulation of eavesdroppers. Finally, we analyze the secret key rate of the system when the channel transmittance obeys the above distributions. The simulation analysis indicates that a slight fluctuation of the channel transmittance may seriously reduce the performance of the system, especially in the extreme asymmetric case. Furthermore, the communication between Alice, Bob and Charlie may be immediately interrupted. Therefore, eavesdroppers can manipulate the channel transmittance to complete a denial-of-service attack in a practical CV-MDI QKD system. To resist this attack, the Gaussian post-selection method can be exploited to calibrate the parameter estimation to reduce the deterioration of performance of the system.
The analysis of the security of quantum key distribution systems with respect to an attack with nondemolishing measurement of the number of photons (photon number splitting—PNS attack) is carried out under the assumption that in the communication channel in each parcel there is a pure Fock state with a different number of photons, and the distribution of states by number of photons has Poisson statistics. In reality, in the communication channel in each parcel there are not individual Fock states, but a pure coherent state with a random phase—a superposition of Fock states with different numbers of photons. The paper analyzes the necessary experimental resources necessary to prepare individual Fock states with a certain number of photons from the superposition of Fock states for a PNS attack. Optical schemes for implementing such an attack are given, and estimates of experimental parameters at which a PNS attack is possible are made.
Experimental results demonstrating long-term stability of the operation of our atmospheric quantum cryptography setup using the BB84 protocol and polarization coding are presented. It was shown that the “sifted” quantum key distribution rate and the quantum bit error rate in the key remained constant for 1 hour and were equal to 10 kbit/s and 6.5 %, respectively, at a distance between the transmitter and the receiver equal to 20 cm. Theoretical dependences of the secret quantum key generation rate on a quantum channel transmission coefficient for single-photon detectors, which were used in this experiment, and for new detectors with a reduced level of dark pulses are given.
AbstractQuantum mechanics allows distribution of intrinsically secure encryption keys by optical means. Twin-field quantum key distribution is one of the most promising techniques for its implementation on long-distance fiber networks, but requires stabilizing the optical length of the communication channels between parties. In proof-of-principle experiments based on spooled fibers, this was achieved by interleaving the quantum communication with periodical stabilization frames. In this approach, longer duty cycles for the key streaming come at the cost of a looser control of channel length, and a successful key-transfer using this technique in real world remains a significant challenge. Using interferometry techniques derived from frequency metrology, we develop a solution for the simultaneous key streaming and channel length control, and demonstrate it on a 206 km field-deployed fiber with 65 dB loss. Our technique reduces the quantum-bit-error-rate contributed by channel length variations to <1%, representing an effective solution for real-world quantum communications.
The trans-media transmission of quantum pulse is one of means of free-space transmission which can be applied in continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) system. In traditional implementations for atmospheric channels, the 1500-to-1600-nm pulse is regarded as an ideal quantum pulse carrier. Whereas, the underwater transmission of this pulses tends to suffer from severe attenuation, which inevitably deteriorates the security of the whole CVQKD system. In this paper, we propose an alternative scheme for implementations of CVQKD over satellite-to-submarine channels. We estimate the parameters of the trans-media channels, involving atmosphere, sea surface and seawater and find that the short-wave infrared performs well in the above channels. The 450 nm pulse is used for generations of quantum signal carriers to accomplish quantum communications through atmosphere, sea surface and seawater channels. Numerical simulations show that the proposed scheme can achieve the transmission distance of 600 km. In addition, we demonstrate that non-Gaussian operations can further lengthen its maximal transmission distance, which contributes to the establishment of practical global quantum networks.
Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows authenticated parties to share secure keys. Its security comes from quantum physics rather than computational complexity. The previous work has been able to demonstrate the security of the BB84 protocol based on the uncertainty principle, entanglement purification and information theory. In the security proof method based on entanglement purification, it is assumed that the information of Calderbank–Shor–Steane (CSS) error correction code cannot be leaked, otherwise, it is insecure. However, there is no quantitative analysis of the relationship between the parameter of CSS code and the amount of information leaked. In the attack and defense strategy of the actual quantum key distribution system, especially in the application of the device that is easy to lose or out of control, it is necessary to assess the impact of the parameter leakage. In this paper, we derive the relationship between the leaked parameter of CSS code and the amount of the final key leakage based on the BB84 protocol. Based on this formula, we simulated the impact of different CSS code parameter leaks on the final key amount. Through the analysis of simulation results, the security of the BB84 protocol is inversely proportional to the value of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] in the case of the CSS code leak.