In order to solve the problem of the spontaneous combustion of coal gangue, a coal gangue fire-extinguishing material of gel–foam was developed. The foaming agent was screened by the Waring blender method with varying foam amounts, and the superabsorbent foam stabilizer was synthesized by free radical polymerization. Moreover, the gel–foam was used in a spontaneous combustion of coal gangue mountain field practice. The results showed that when the mass fraction of sodium dodecyl sulfonate and coconut oil amide propyl betaine was 0.6% and 4:6, the foaming amount was as high as 1500 mL. When the mass ratio of chitosan to acrylic acid was 1:6, the neutralization degree was 80%, the cross-linking agent was 0.8%, and the initiator was 0.01%, the water absorption of the synthesized superabsorbent foam stabilizer reached 476 mL/g. The synthesized gel–foam was tested in a spontaneous combustion coal gangue hill in a certain area, and no reburning sign was found within one month.
Coal gangue is an inevitable product in coal mining and processing and is the most important source of pollution in mines. Vegetation restoration of coal gangue piles must consider its special site conditions. Therefore, we conducted unmanned air vehicle (UAV) temperature monitoring, field investigation and experimental analysis on spontaneous combustion coal gangue piles in Lu’an mining area. In the vegetation construction of coal gangue piles, high-temperature stress affects plant survival. The spontaneous combustion coal gangue piles have abnormal temperature, high surface temperature and few vegetation types. The plant community species diversity index (Shannon–Wiener index, Pielou’s index and Species abundance index) is small, the plant community is single and the plant diversity is low. Spontaneous combustion of coal gangue leads to soil acidification, reducing soil water content, soil organic carbon (SOM), available nitrogen (AN), available potassium (AK) and available phosphorus (AP). These factors are single or interactive in plants and have an impact on plant survival and growth. The research results are of great significance to the vegetation restoration of spontaneous combustion coal gangue piles, ecological reconstruction and the improvement of the ecological environment of coal mine areas.