oilseed rape
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2022 ◽  
Vol 51 ◽  
pp. 101911
Author(s):  
Lina Saldukaitė ◽  
Egidijus Šarauskis ◽  
Andrii Zabrodskyi ◽  
Aida Adamavičienė ◽  
Sidona Buragienė ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sarah Köbke ◽  
Hongxing He ◽  
Matthias Böldt ◽  
Haitao Wang ◽  
Mehmet Senbayram ◽  
...  

Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is an important bioenergy crop that contributes to the diversification of renewable energy supply and mitigation of fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Typical oilseed rape crop management includes the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and the incorporation of oilseed rape straw into soil after harvest. However, both management options risk increasing soil emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O). The aim of this 2-years field experiment was to identify the regulating factors of N cycling with emphasis on N2O emissions during the post-harvest period. As well as the N2O emission rates, soil ammonia (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3−) contents, crop residue and seed yield were also measured. Treatments included variation of fertilizer (non-fertilized, 90 and 180 kg N ha−1) and residue management (straw remaining, straw removal). Measured N2O emission data showed large intra- and inter-annual variations ranging from 0.5 (No-fert + str) to 1.0 kg N2O-N ha−1 (Fert-180 + str) in 2013 and from 4.1 (Fert-90 + str) to 7.3 kg N2O-N ha−1 (No-fert + str) in 2014. Cumulative N2O emissions showed that straw incorporation led to no difference or slightly reduced N2O emissions compared with treatments with straw removal, while N fertilization has no effect on post-harvest N2O emissions. A process-based model, CoupModel, was used to explain the large annual variation of N2O after calibration with measured environmental data. Both modeled and measured data suggest that soil water-filled pore space and temperature were the key factors controlling post-harvest N2O emissions, even though the model seemed to show a higher N2O response to the N fertilizer levels than our measured data. We conclude that straw incorporation in oilseed rape cropping is environmentally beneficial for mitigating N2O losses. The revealed importance of climate in regulating the emissions implies the value of multi-year measurements. Future studies should focus on new management practices to mitigate detrimental effects caused by global warming, for example by using cover crops.


Insects ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 98
Author(s):  
Ronalds Krams ◽  
Dita Gudra ◽  
Sergejs Popovs ◽  
Jonathan Willow ◽  
Tatjana Krama ◽  
...  

Bumblebees are key pollinators in agricultural landscapes. However, little is known about how gut microbial communities respond to anthropogenic changes. We used commercially produced colonies of buff-tailed bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) placed in three habitats. Whole guts (midgut, hindgut, and rectum) of B. terrestris specimens were dissected from the body and analyzed using 16S phylogenetic community analysis. We observed significantly different bacterial community composition between the agricultural landscapes (apple orchards and oilseed rape (Brassica napus) fields) and forest meadows, whereas differences in gut communities between the orchards and oilseed rape fields were nonsignificant. Bee-specific bacterial genera such as Lactobacillus, Snodgrassella, and Gilliamella dominated gut communities of B. terrestris specimens. In contrast, the guts of B. terrestris from forest meadows were dominated by fructose-associated Fructobacillus spp. Bacterial communities of workers were the most diverse. At the same time, those of males and young queens were less diverse, possibly reflecting greater exposure to the colony’s inner environment compared to the environment outside the colony, as well as bumblebee age. Our results suggest that habitat quality, exposure to environmental microbes, nectar quality and accessibility, and land use significantly affect gut bacterial composition in B. terrestris.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Lisa Petzoldt ◽  
Bärbel Kroschewski ◽  
Timo Kautz

Abstract Aims Biopores offer favorable chemical, biological and physical properties for root growth in untilled soil layers. There they are considered as nutrient “hotspots” with preferential root growth. However, the literature lacks a quantification of metabolic activity due to nutrient acquisition of main crops while growing in the biopore sheath. Methods A pot experiment was performed to map the metabolic activity of roots, as indicated by pH change. The roots of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) were growing through the biopore sheath influenced by an earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris L.) or a taproot (Cichorium intybus L.), in comparison to subsoil without a pore (bulk soil). pH sensitive planar optodes were applied in order to image a planar section of the sheath, while preserving an intact biopore sheath during the experiment. Results Roots were first found in the field of view in worm biopore then root biopore and bulk soil. At time of the first measurement the pH value was highest in worm biopore sheath (LS-Mean±SEM: 7.16a±0.11), followed by root biopore sheath (6.99ab±0.12) and bulk soil (6.61b±0.12). In spring oilseed rape a significant alkalization (+0.80 Δ pH) was found over time in bulk soil. Faba bean significantly acidified the root biopore sheath (-0.73 Δ pH). Spring barley showed no significant pH changes. Conclusions The results of the current study reveal a trend of faster root growth through biopores and a higher initial pH value in the biopore sheaths compared to the bulk soil. Biopores serve not only as an elongation path for roots, but their sheaths also provide an environment for root activity in the subsoil.


Agriculture ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 62
Author(s):  
Zhu Sun ◽  
Xiangyu Guo ◽  
Yang Xu ◽  
Songchao Zhang ◽  
Xiaohui Cheng ◽  
...  

To ensure the hybrid oilseed rape (OSR, Brassica napus) seed production, two important things are necessary, the stamen sterility on the female OSR plants and the effective pollen spread onto the pistil from the OSR male plants to the OSR female plants. The unmanned agricultural aerial system (UAAS) has developed rapidly in China. It has been used on supplementary pollination and aerial spraying during the hybrid OSR seed production. This study developed a new method to rapidly recognize the male OSR plants and extract the row center line for supporting the UAAS navigation. A male OSR plant recognition model was constructed based on the convolutional neural network (CNN). The sequence images of male OSR plants were extracted, the feature regions and points were obtained from the images through morphological and boundary process methods and horizontal segmentation, respectively. The male OSR plant image recognition accuracies of different CNN structures and segmentation sizes were discussed. The male OSR plant row center lines were fitted using the least-squares method (LSM) and Hough transform. The results showed that the segmentation algorithm could segment the male OSR plants from the complex background. The highest average recognition accuracy was 93.54%, and the minimum loss function value was 0.2059 with three convolutional layers, one fully connected layer, and a segmentation size of 40 pix × 40 pix. The LSM is better for center line fitting. The average recognition model accuracies of original input images were 98% and 94%, and the average root mean square errors (RMSE) of angle were 3.22° and 1.36° under cloudy day and sunny day lighting conditions, respectively. The results demonstrate the potential of using digital imaging technology to recognize the male OSR plant row for UAAS visual navigation on the applications of hybrid OSR supplementary pollination and aerial spraying, which would be a meaningful supplement in precision agriculture.


Crops ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-13
Author(s):  
Sebastian Schwabe ◽  
Sabine Gruber ◽  
Wilhelm Claupein

The framework conditions for chemical weed control in oilseed rape (OSR) are becoming increasingly unfavorable in Central Europe. On the one hand, weed resistance is spreading and, on the other, there is a growing social desire to reduce or eliminate the use of chemical crop protection products. In a field experiment, hoeing, as a weed control measure performed two times per growing season (one time in autumn and one time in spring) in oilseed rape (Brassica napus; two varieties), was compared to chemical control by herbicides and a combination of hoeing and herbicide application (five treatments altogether). The chemical control by herbicides consisted of a broad-spectrum pre-emergence treatment and a post-emergence graminicide application. The trial was set up in each of three periods (years 2014/2015, 2015/2016, and 2016/2017) at the experimental station Ihinger Hof, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany. The effect of the treatments on weed plant density, weed biomass at the time of harvesting, and on OSR grain yield was investigated. Weed plant density was measured four times per trial year, each time before and after hoeing. In 2015/2016 after spring hoeing, and in 2016/2017 at all data collection times, weed plant density was significantly higher in hoeing without herbicide application than in the other variants. No significant differences occurred at the other data collection times. The weed plant density ranged from 0.5 to 57.8 plants m−2. Regardless of the trial year, pure hoeing always resulted in a significantly higher weed biomass at the time of harvesting than the herbicide applications or the combinations. The weed biomass at the time of harvesting ranged between 0.1 and 54.7 g m−2. No significant differences in grain yield between hoeing and herbicide application occurred in all three trial years. According to the results, hoeing is a suitable extension of existing integrated weed control strategies in OSR.


Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 110
Author(s):  
Magdalena Rys ◽  
Diana Saja-Garbarz ◽  
Andrzej Skoczowski

The use of plants that have high allelopathic potential as natural herbicides in the form of aqueous extracts is gaining popularity in environmentally friendly agriculture. Usually, their effect on the germination and growth of weeds is investigated. However, less attention is paid to the effect of the allelopathic compounds from extracts on cultivated plants. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of herbal extracts that have allelopathic properties on selected physiological and biochemical processes of two plants of great economic importance—white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) and oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. var. oleifera). The extracts were prepared from mountain arnica (Arnica montana L.), ribwort (Plantago lanceolata L.), hypericum (Hypericum perforatum L.), common milfoil (Achillea millefolium L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and sage (Salvia officinalis L.). The germination of white mustard and oilseed rape was most inhibited by the extracts that were prepared from sage and sunflower. Additionally, in the germinating plants, the sunflower extracts increased the membrane permeability, which indicates membrane injuries. The metabolic changes in the plants were monitored using isothermal calorimetry and FT-Raman spectroscopy. The total heat production, which provided information about the metabolic activity of the white mustard and oilseed rape, was decreased the most by the sage extract but generally all of the tested extracts disturbed the shape of the heat emission curves compared to the water control. The impact of the allelopathic compounds that are present in the herbal extracts on the metabolism of the seedlings was clearly visible on the FT-Raman spectra—in the fatty acids and flavonoids range, confirmed using a cluster analysis. In conclusion, the herbal extracts from medicinal plants that have herbicidal activity could be used as a natural herbicide for weed control, but since they may also have negative impacts on cultivated plants, preliminary tests are advisable to find the extract from the species that has the least negative effect on a protected crop.


2022 ◽  
Vol 78 (01) ◽  
pp. 6604-2022
Author(s):  
MAŁGORZATA MAZUR ◽  
ZBIGNIEW SIERADZKI ◽  
BEATA KRÓL ◽  
KRZYSZTOF KWIATEK

The labeling of products containing GMOs above 0.9% results from the provisions of the law in force in the European Union. The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of genetically modified rape in feed used in feeding farm animals in Poland. The research was based on the real-time PCR technique, using primers and event-specific probes. A total of 900 samples were analyzed. The research identified canola line GT73, resistant to glyphosate. Only in 12 samples did the content of this oilseed rape exceed the threshold above which the product must be labeled as containing GMOs. Conducting such controls is extremely important because of the possibility of contamination of feed free from genetically modified organisms, which are increasingly used in animal nutrition.


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