time encoding
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Ibtissem Wali ◽  
Amina Kessentini ◽  
Mohamed Ali Ben Ayed ◽  
Nouri Masmoudi ◽  

The programmable processors newest technologies, as for example the multicore Digital Signal Processors (DSP), offer a promising solution for overcoming the complexity of the real time video encoding application. In this paper, the SHVC video encoder was effectively implemented just on a single core among the eight cores of TMS320C6678 DSP for a Common Intermediate Format (CIF)input video sequence resolution(352x288). Performance optimization of the SHVC encoder had reached up 41% compared to its reference software enabling a real-time implementation of the SHVC encoder for CIF input videos sequence resolution. The proposed SHVC implementation was carried out on different quantization parameters (QP). Several experimental tests had proved our performance achievement for real-time encoding on TMS320C6678.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 (1) ◽  
pp. 9-17
Thibaud Biatek ◽  
Mohsen Abdoli ◽  
Mickael Raulet ◽  
Adam Wieckowski ◽  
Christian Lehman ◽  

In the past few decades, the video broadcast ecosystem has gone through major changes; Originally transmitted using analog signals, it has been more and more transitioned toward digital, leveraging compression technologies and transport protocols, principally developed by MPEG. Along this way, the introduction of new video formats was achieved with standardization of new compression technologies for their better bandwidth preservation. Notably, SD with MPEG-2, HD with H.264, 4K/UHD with HEVC. In Brazil, the successive generations of digital broadcasting systems were developed by the SBTVD Forum, from TV-1.0 to TV-3.0 nowadays. The ambition of TV-3.0 is significantly higher than that of previous generations as it targets the delivery of IPbased signals for applications, such as 8K, HDR, virtual and augmented reality. To deliver such services, compressed video signals shall fit into a limited bandwidth, requiring even more advanced compression technologies. The Versatile Video Coding standard (H.266/VVC), has been finalized by the JVET committee in 2021 and is a relevant candidate to address the TV3.0 requirements. VVC is versatile by nature thanks to its dedicated tools for efficient compression of various formats, from 8K to 360°, and provides around 50% of bitrate saving compared to its predecessor HEVC. This paper presents the VVC-based compression system that has been proposed to the SBTVD call for proposals for TV-3.0. A technical description of VVC and an evaluation of its coding performance is provided. In addition, an end-to-end live transmission chain is demonstrated, supporting 4K real-time encoding and decoding with a low glass-to-glass latency.

Chenxi Sun ◽  
Shenda Hong ◽  
Moxian Song ◽  
Yen-Hsiu Chou ◽  
Yongyue Sun ◽  

Prediction based on Irregularly Sampled Time Series (ISTS) is of wide concern in real-world applications. For more accurate prediction, methods had better grasp more data characteristics. Different from ordinary time series, ISTS is characterized by irregular time intervals of intra-series and different sampling rates of inter-series. However, existing methods have suboptimal predictions due to artificially introducing new dependencies in a time series and biasedly learning relations among time series when modeling these two characteristics. In this work, we propose a novel Time Encoding (TE) mechanism. TE can embed the time information as time vectors in the complex domain. It has the properties of absolute distance and relative distance under different sampling rates, which helps to represent two irregularities. Meanwhile, we create a new model named Time Encoding Echo State Network (TE-ESN). It is the first ESNs-based model that can process ISTS data. Besides, TE-ESN incorporates long short-term memories and series fusion to grasp horizontal and vertical relations. Experiments on one chaos system and three real-world datasets show that TE-ESN performs better than all baselines and has better reservoir property.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
James B. Isbister ◽  
Vicente Reyes-Puerta ◽  
Jyh-Jang Sun ◽  
Illia Horenko ◽  
Heiko J. Luhmann

AbstractHow information in the nervous system is encoded by patterns of action potentials (i.e. spikes) remains an open question. Multi-neuron patterns of single spikes are a prime candidate for spike time encoding but their temporal variability requires further characterisation. Here we show how known sources of spike count variability affect stimulus-evoked spike time patterns between neurons separated over multiple layers and columns of adult rat somatosensory cortex in vivo. On subsets of trials (clusters) and after controlling for stimulus-response adaptation, spike time differences between pairs of neurons are “time-warped” (compressed/stretched) by trial-to-trial changes in shared excitability, explaining why fixed spike time patterns and noise correlations are seldom reported. We show that predicted cortical state is correlated between groups of 4 neurons, introducing the possibility of spike time pattern modulation by population-wide trial-to-trial changes in excitability (i.e. cortical state). Under the assumption of state-dependent coding, we propose an improved potential encoding capacity.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (5) ◽  
pp. e0251172
Ayush Mandwal ◽  
Javier G. Orlandi ◽  
Christoph Simon ◽  
Jörn Davidsen

Within the classical eye-blink conditioning, Purkinje cells within the cerebellum are known to suppress their tonic firing rates for a well defined time period in response to the conditional stimulus after training. The temporal profile of the drop in tonic firing rate, i.e., the onset and the duration, depend upon the time interval between the onsets of the conditional and unconditional training stimuli. Direct stimulation of parallel fibers and climbing fiber by electrodes was found to be sufficient to reproduce the same characteristic drop in the firing rate of the Purkinje cell. In addition, the specific metabotropic glutamate-based receptor type 7 (mGluR7) was found responsible for the initiation of the response, suggesting an intrinsic mechanism within the Purkinje cell for the temporal learning. In an attempt to look for a mechanism for time-encoding memory formation within individual Purkinje cells, we propose a biochemical mechanism based on recent experimental findings. The proposed mechanism tries to answer key aspects of the “Coding problem” of Neuroscience by focusing on the Purkinje cell’s ability to encode time intervals through training. According to the proposed mechanism, the time memory is encoded within the dynamics of a set of proteins—mGluR7, G-protein, G-protein coupled Inward Rectifier Potassium ion channel, Protein Kinase A, Protein Phosphatase 1 and other associated biomolecules—which self-organize themselves into a protein complex. The intrinsic dynamics of these protein complexes can differ and thus can encode different time durations. Based on their amount and their collective dynamics within individual synapses, the Purkinje cell is able to suppress its own tonic firing rate for a specific time interval. The time memory is encoded within the effective dynamics of the biochemical reactions and altering these dynamics means storing a different time memory. The proposed mechanism is verified by both a minimal and a more comprehensive mathematical model of the conditional response behavior of the Purkinje cell and corresponding dynamical simulations of the involved biomolecules, yielding testable experimental predictions.

2021 ◽  
Zihan Zang ◽  
Zhi Li ◽  
Yi Luo ◽  
Yan-Jun Han ◽  
Xuanyi Liu ◽  

Abstract Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) has been widely used in autonomous driving and large-scale manufacturing. Although state-of-the-art scanning LiDAR can perform long-range three-dimensional imaging, the frame rate is limited by both round-trip delay and the beam steering speed, hindering the development of high-speed autonomous vehicles. For hundred-meter level ranging applications, a several-time speedup is highly desirable. Here, we uniquely combine fiber-based encoders with wavelength-division multiplexing devices to implement all-optical time-encoding on the illumination light. Using this method, parallel detection and fast inertia-free spectral scanning can be achieved simultaneously with single-pixel detection. As a result, the frame rate of a scanning LiDAR can be multiplied with scalability. We demonstrate a 4.4-fold speedup for a maximum 75-m detection range, compared with a time-of-flight-limited laser ranging system. This approach has the potential to improve the velocity of LiDAR-based autonomous vehicles to the regime of hundred kilometers per hour and open up a new paradigm for ultrafast-frame-rate LiDAR imaging.

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