Heat treatment is one of the most used methods to preserve food, such as orange juices, which are an excellent source of ascorbic acid. To avoid vitamin C degradation and reduce loss, fast heating is recommended. This work aimed to determine the vitamin C content using the iodometric method and the convective heat transfer coefficient using the method of dimensionless numbers and the experimental method. Time and temperature were controlled throughout the experiment. In pasteurization, the solution was heated to 80 °C, heating lasted 50 minutes and cooling for 42 minutes. The convective heat transfer coefficient was evaluated in two regions of the cylindrical container: near the wall and in the central region. The graphic profile of the curve follows the same trend of the literature. The convective heat transfer coefficient is higher in the region near the wall. As time passes and temperature decreases, the central region tends to equilibrium, and the coefficient becomes more constant. The vitamin C content remained constant before and after pasteurization, so it was observed that the pasteurization did not cause ascorbic acid degradation since the heating step was fast in the heat treatment. As a result of the study, it was noted that studying the thermal behavior in the cooling of orange juice is extremely important to ensure its quality. It is pertinent to mention that in order to avoid this degradation and reduce its loss, it is necessary that in thermal treatments, fast heating is carried out and that the juice has low exposure to air and heat at the time of its preparation.
Mn activated optical materials have been demonstrated to be promising for various applications such as light-emitting device, tunable lasers and smart sensors. Most of the candidates belong to the single crystals and crystalline powders and few reports involve about the glass-derived materials. In this letter, we report the fabrication of active Mn-doped nanostructured glass sample via control of the crystallization of a typical gallogermanate glass. LiGa5O8 and LiGaGeO4 can precipitate after heat-treatment and Mn centers selectively incorporate into the crystalline phase. Importantly, the luminescence can be switched from red to green color and the intensity can be simultaneously enhanced. Furthermore, the luminescence properties can be tuned via control of the phase of the nanostructured glass. The approach should be general to various transition metal dopant, thus may potentially pave an effective way for functionalization of glass and expand the category of the active optical materials.
Dietary supplementation with raw garlic has a preventive and healing effect in cardiovascular diseases, but it could also damage the intestinal mucosa, resulting in impairment of nutrient absorption. Garlic processing, including heat treatment, changes the content and biological activity of garlic, so it is crucial to find food-processing methods that will preserve the health-promoting properties of garlic while minimizing its negative impact on the digestive system. Therefore, in this study, the effect of garlic (Allium sativum L.) on growth parameters, plasma lipid profile, and morphological parameters in the ileum of Wistar rats subjected to various types of heat treatment (90 s blanching garlic, 10 min boiling in water, 10 min pan frying without fat, microwave heating fresh garlic, 90 s blanching and microwave heating garlic, 10 min boiling in water and microwave heating garlic, and 10 min pan frying without fat and microwave heating garlic) was determined in an atherogenic diet (containing 1% addition of cholesterol). In the conducted research, it was found that the diet supplemented with heat-treated garlic used in the atherogenic diet improved the consumption and growth parameters of rats, depending on the type and time of its use. The highest consumption was recorded in atherogenic groups supplemented with garlic subjected to a longer (10 min) heat treatment and was then heated in a microwave oven. Garlic subjected to the shortest heat treatment proved to be most effective, and a significant improvement in the lipid profiles of rats’ plasma with atherogenic was observed. Extending the time of heat treatment of garlic and, additionally, its microwaving significantly weakened the action of garlic in the body, but still retained its hypolipidemic effect. The greatest influence on the structural changes in the mucosa of the rats’ iliac intestine, manifested by degeneration of the mucosa, shortening the length of the intestinal villi, damage to the brush border, and thus impairment of the intestinal absorption, was exerted by supplementing the atherogenic diet with garlic subjected to short-term heat treatment. Among the processes used, blanching was the least favorable, and the long-lasting thermal processes (cooking, frying for 10 min) had a positive effect on the mucosa of the rats’ intestines. The results obtained in this study confirm that the selection of an appropriate method of thermal processing of garlic may allow for the maintenance of preventive and therapeutic efficacy of garlic in cardiovascular diseases, while ensuring the safety of its long-term use in the context of degenerative changes in the gastrointestinal tract.