non equilibrium
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Niccolo Giannetti ◽  
Moojoong Kim ◽  
Hiroaki Yoshimura ◽  
Kiyoshi Saito

Mathematics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (2) ◽  
pp. 272
Chenyu Wu ◽  
Haoran Li ◽  
Yufei Zhang ◽  
Haixin Chen

The accuracy of an airfoil stall prediction heavily depends on the computation of the separated shear layer. Capturing the strong non-equilibrium turbulence in the shear layer is crucial for the accuracy of a stall prediction. In this paper, different Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes turbulence models are adopted and compared for airfoil stall prediction. The results show that the separated shear layer fixed k−v2¯−ω (abbreviated as SPF k−v2¯−ω) turbulence model captures the non-equilibrium turbulence in the separated shear layer well and gives satisfactory predictions of both thin-airfoil stall and trailing-edge stall. At small Reynolds numbers (Re~105), the relative error between the predicted CL,max of NACA64A010 by the SPF k−v2¯−ω model and the experimental data is less than 3.5%. At high Reynolds numbers (Re~106), the CL,max of NACA64A010 and NACA64A006 predicted by the SPF k−v2¯−ω model also has an error of less than 5.5% relative to the experimental data. The stall of the NACA0012 airfoil, which features trailing-edge stall, is also computed by the SPF k−v2¯−ω model. The SPF k−v2¯−ω model is also applied to a NACA0012 airfoil, which features trailing-edge stall and an error of CL relative to the experiment at CL>1.0 is smaller than 3.5%. The SPF k−v2¯−ω model shows higher accuracy than other turbulence models.

Julien Delahaye ◽  
Thierry Grenet

Abstract This paper describes the observation of non-equilibrium field effects at room temperature in four disordered insulating systems: granular Al, discontinuous Au, amorphous NbSi and amorphous InOx thin films. The use of wide enough gate voltage ranges and a cautious analysis of the data allow us to uncover memory dips, the advocated hallmark of the electron glass, in the four systems. These memory dips are found to relax slowly over days of measurements under gate voltage changes, reflecting the impossibility for the systems to reach an equilibrium state within experimentally accessible times. Our findings demonstrate that these electrical glassy effects, so far essentially reported at cryogenic temperatures, actually extend up to room temperature.

Catalysts ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 75
Jacek Tyczkowski ◽  
Hanna Kierzkowska-Pawlak

Cold (non-equilibrium) plasma techniques have long been used as plasma deposition methods to create new materials, often with unique properties, which cannot be produced any other way, as well as plasma treatment methods for the sophisticated modification of conventional materials [...]

2022 ◽  
Vol 934 ◽  
M. Gelain ◽  
O. Gicquel ◽  
A. Couilleaux ◽  
R. Vicquelin

The direct numerical simulation of a non-equilibrium turbulent heat transfer case is performed in a channel flow, where non-equilibrium is induced by a step change in surface temperature. The domain is thus made of two parts in the streamwise direction. Upstream, the flow is turbulent, homogeneous in temperature and the channel walls are adiabatic. The inflow conditions are extracted from a recycling plane located further downstream, so that a fully developed turbulent adiabatic flow reaches the second part. In the domain located downstream, isothermal boundary conditions are prescribed at the walls. The boundary layer, initially at equilibrium, is perturbed by the abrupt change of boundary conditions, and a non-equilibrium transient phase is observed until, further downstream, the flow reaches a new equilibrium state, presenting a fully developed thermal boundary layer. The work aims at identifying the non-equilibrium effects that are expected to be encountered in comparable flows, while providing the means to understand them. In particular, the study allows for the identification of an inner region of the developing boundary layer where several quantities are at equilibrium. Other quantities, instead, exhibit a behaviour of their own, especially in proximity to the leading edge. The analysis is supported by mean and root-mean-square profiles of temperature and velocity, as well as by budgets of first- and second-order moment balance equations for the enthalpy and momentum turbulent fields.

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