particulate ammonium
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2018 ◽  
Vol 239 ◽  
pp. 392-398 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xu-Dong Zheng ◽  
Xue-Yan Liu ◽  
Wei Song ◽  
Xin-Chao Sun ◽  
Cong-Qiang Liu

2018 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 167-184 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhaoyang Meng ◽  
Xiaobin Xu ◽  
Weili Lin ◽  
Baozhu Ge ◽  
Yulin Xie ◽  
...  

Abstract. The real-time measurements of NH3 and trace gases were conducted, in conjunction with semi-continuous measurements of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 at a rural site in the North China Plain (NCP) from May to September 2013 in order to better understand chemical characteristics of ammonia and the impact of secondary ammonium aerosols on formation in the NCP. Extremely high NH3 and NH4+ concentrations were observed after a precipitation event within 7–10 days following urea application. Elevated NH3 levels coincided with elevated NH4+, indicating that NH3 likely influenced particulate ammonium mass. For the sampling period, the average conversion ∕ oxidation ratios for NH4+ (NHR), SO42- (SOR), and NO3- (NOR) were estimated to be 0.30, 0.64, and 0.24, respectively. The increased NH3 concentrations, mainly from agricultural activities and regional transport, coincided with the prevailing meteorological conditions. The high NH3 level with NHR of about 0.30 indicates that the emission of NH3 in the NCP is much higher than needed for aerosol acid neutralisation, and NH3 plays an important role in the formation of secondary aerosols as a key neutraliser. The hourly data obtained were used to investigate gas–aerosol partitioning characteristics using the thermodynamic equilibrium model ISORROPIA-II. Modelled SO42-, NO3-, and NH3 values agree well with the measurements, while the modelled NH4+ values largely underestimate the measurements. Our observation and modelling results indicate that strong acids in aerosol are completely neutralised. Additional NH4+ exists in aerosol, probably a result of the presence of a substantial amount of oxalic and other diacids.


2017 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhaoyang Meng ◽  
Xiaobin Xu ◽  
Weili Lin ◽  
Yulin Xie ◽  
Bo Song ◽  
...  

Abstract. The real-time measurements of NH3 and trace gases were conducted, in conjunction with semi-continuous measurements of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 at a rural site in the North China Plain (NCP) from May to September 2013 in order to better understand of chemical characteristics for ammonia, and of the impact on formation of secondary ammonium aerosols in the NCP. Extremely high NH3 and NH4+ concentrations were observed after a precipitation event within 7–10 days following urea application. Elevated NH3 levels coincided with elevated NH4+, suggesting that NH3 plays a vital role in enhancing particulate ammonium. For the sampling period, the average oxidation/conversion ratios for SO42− (SOR), NO3− (NOR) and NH4+ (NHR) were estimated to be 64 %, 24 % and 30 %, respectively. The increased NH3 concentrations mainly from agricultural activities, coincided with the prevailing meteorological conditions could promote the secondary transformation, resulting in higher hourly SOR, NOR and NHR. The concentrations of NH3, NH4+, and NHR had clear diurnal variations, which could be attributed to their sources, meteorological conditions, and formation mechanisms. The back trajectory analysis indicates that the transport of air masses from the North China Plain region contributed to the atmospheric NH3 variations, and both regional sources and long-distance transport from southeast played important roles in the observed ammonium aerosol at rural site in the NCP. The findings of this study are expected to facilitate developing future NH3 emission control policies for the North China Plain.


2017 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yuk S. Tang ◽  
Christine F. Braban ◽  
Ulrike Dragosits ◽  
Anthony J. Dore ◽  
Ivan Simmons ◽  
...  

Abstract. A unique long-term dataset from the UK National Ammonia Monitoring Network (NAMN) is used here to assess spatial, seasonal and long-term variability in atmospheric ammonia (NH3: 1998–2014) and particulate ammonium (NH4+: 1999–2014) across the UK. Extensive spatial heterogeneity in NH3 concentrations is observed, with lowest annual mean concentrations at remote sites (


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