Ammonium Nitrate
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Horticulturae ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (12) ◽  
pp. 530
Arturo Cocco ◽  
Luca Mercenaro ◽  
Enrico Muscas ◽  
Alessandra Mura ◽  
Giovanni Nieddu ◽  

Nitrogen is a key macronutrient for the quantitative and qualitative yield of grapes; in addition, it influences the development and reproduction of grape pests. The multiple effects of different nitrogen rates were investigated on the red berry cultivar ‘Carignano’ and the grape pest Planococcus ficus in a two-year field trial. Different amounts of ammonium nitrate were compared: 0, 80 and 160 Units ha−1 for mineral nitrogen. The amount of nitrogen fertilization supplied influenced the nitrogen status of vines and increased the pruning weight and leaf area, as well as the overall grape yield, by increasing the cluster weight. However, doubling the nitrogen rate did not generally increase the vegetative and productive parameters of grapevines. At harvest, nitrogen supply did not influence the anthocyanin content, tritatable acidity, and soluble solids, although the latter parameter showed a clear, yet not significant, decreasing trend. Planococcus ficus exhibited higher fecundity, survival and shorter development time on grapevines provided with nitrogen, whereas its fertility was unaffected by nitrogen fertilization. Ultimately, nitrogen had a direct and positive effect on grape yield and vine mealybug development, highlighting the importance of integrated cultural and pest control practices to promote grape production.

V.G. Sozontov ◽  
I.V. Kravchenko ◽  
I.L. Kovalenko

The article presents the technology for production of granular calcium-ammonium nitrate, which is suitable for implementation into the existing production of complex mineral fertilizers. The paper considers the physicochemical foundations of manufacturing calcium-ammonium nitrate and provides the calculations of the equilibrium constants of the reactions occurring at the temperatures of 25–1700С. A new process flow diagram was proposed. It was shown that the production of calcium ammonium nitrate as a valuable agrochemical fertilizer is possible by mixing of 82–84% ammonium nitrate solution with solid carbonate raw materials with further granulation and drying in a drum granulator and dryer. The work determines the conditions for the interaction of reagents making it possible to reduce the losses of nitrogen. The density of aqueous suspensions of chalk and the rate of its precipitation are established. The obtained results allow improving an industrial plant based on the existing equipment for the production of complex mineral fertilizers. The technological parameters for the preparation of the product are optimized to meet the requirements of technical conditions. During commissioning and stabilization of the technological regime, a product was obtained containing 25.9–27.8% of total nitrogen, 15.6–16.8% of CaCO3, 0.01–0.64% of Ca(NO3)2, and 0.32–0.75% of H2O with the following particle size distribution: 95.3–96.3% of 1–5 mm particle size, and 3.7–4.8% of particle size of less than 1 mm with a granule hardness of 30 N per granule.

K.B. Podbolotov ◽  
A.T. Volochko ◽  
G.V. Lisachuk ◽  
R.V. Krivobok ◽  

Ceramic materials were synthesized in the RO(R=Ba, Sr)–Al2O3–SiO2 system using exothermic synthesis from solutions containing barium and strontium nitrates, silica and organic reducing agents (glycine and carbamide). It was shown that only the use of a mixture of glycine and carbamide as well as the addition of ammonium nitrate allows carrying out a complete exothermic synthesis with the formation of an X-ray amorphous product with a small fraction of the crystalline phase. It was established that monophase materials based on barium and strontium aluminosilicates (BaAl2Si2O8 and SrAl2Si2O8) are formed when the obtained X-ray amorphous product is heat-treated at the temperatures above 10000C. Ceramics from synthesized materials sintered at 15500C has a high refractoriness, open porosity of 0–1.0%, compressive strength of 115–120 MPa; dielectric constant of 3.25–6.0 (at the frequency of 1 MHz) and the loss tangent of (1.5–5.2)10–3. The results shows that the exothermic synthesis ensures the preparation of nano- and sub-microcrystalline powders in the system RO(R=Ba, Sr)–Al2O3–SiO2. Materials based on the obtained aluminosilicates can be used in the manufacture of protective structures for devices operating in the radio frequency band, in radar installations of aviation and rocket technology, in microwave elements, etc.

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 2376
Pavel Suran ◽  
Martin Kulhánek ◽  
Jiří Balík ◽  
Jindřich Černý ◽  
Ondřej Sedlář

Sulfur nutrition is a critical part of proper crop growth and development. In our study, biomass yields (BY) and S uptake were investigated on long-term maize monoculture on haplic luvisol soil during the 23 years of this trial, as well as changes in water extractable (Sw), adsorbed (Sads), mineral (Sav), and pseudo-total S (St) fractions. Treatments used in this study are: (1) Control (Cont); (2) ammonium sulfate (AS); (3) urea and ammonium nitrate (UAN); (4) UAN + phosphorus and potassium (UAN + PK); (5) UAN + phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur (UAN + PMgS); and (6) Fallow. Recently, the Mehlich 3 method started to be used in the Czech Republic to determine content of plant available S. Using this method, it was found that the content of S extracted by Mehlich 3 (SM3) closely correlates to Sav in both topsoil and subsoil (r = 0.958 in 1997 and 0.990 in 2019, both at p < 0.001). We also found that, on average, during the entire experiment, all treatments had increased yields over Cont (135–147%) and increased S uptake (291, 192, 180, and 246% of Cont for AS, UAN, UAN + PK, and UAN + PMgS, respectively). Examining the changes from 1997 to 2019 in topsoil (0–30 cm depth), we discovered a decrease of S content in Sw, Sads, Sav, and St fractions on all treatments to an average of 34.6%, 65.8%, 42.2%, and 78.6% of their initial values. The exception was AS treatment, which doubled its initial content in mineral fractions and maintained the same levels of St, and which we attribute to the very high dose of S on this treatment (142 kg ha−1 year−1). Using the simple balance method, AS and UAN + PMgS treatments lost 142.2 and 95.3 kg S ha−1 year−1 to other sinks, except plant uptake, from the entire soil profile (0–60 cm) during 23 years of experiment. Other treatments also show significant losses with the exception of Fallow. Given these results, it is clear that content of sulfur in soil is generally decreasing and attention should be paid mainly towards minimizing of its losses.

2022 ◽  
Vol 49 ◽  
pp. 101730
Wilgince Apollon ◽  
Luis L. Valera-Montero ◽  
Catarino Perales-Segovia ◽  
Víctor A. Maldonado-Ruelas ◽  
Raúl A. Ortiz-Medina ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (23) ◽  
pp. 701
Banylla Felicity Dkhar Gatphoh ◽  
Natasha Naval Aggarwal ◽  
Merugumolu Vijay Kumar ◽  
Bistuvalli Chandrashekharappa Revanasiddappa

The title compounds 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives (C1-5) were synthesized by the cyclization of 4-hydroxy benzhydrazide (1) with various substituted aromatic aldehydes (2) in the presence of ceric ammonium nitrate. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were established based on FT-IR, 1H-NMR, and Mass spectral data. In silico analysis was carried out using the Schrodinger 2018-3 suite device Maestro and docked to the binding site of the Human GABAA receptor (PDB ID:4COF). The toxicity of the compounds was predicted using the LAZAR (Lazy structure-activity relationship) program. The invivo anticonvulsant study was performed by means of a maximal electroshock test and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. Compounds C4&C5 showed the highest docking score of −5.676 and −5.277, respectively, and compounds C4&C5 showed the most increased in vivo anticonvulsant activity when compared with the reference drugs in both the PTZ and MES test methods. HIGHLIGHTS A new series of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles (C1-C5) were synthesized by reacting aromatic aldehydes and 4-hydroxy benzhydrazide using cerric ammonium nitrate as (CAT) catalyst and characterized by spectral data All the new compounds were subjected for In-silico analysis and docked to Human GABAA receptor (PDB ID:4COF) In-vivo anticonvulsant activity was carried out for all the new compounds by using maximal electroshock (MES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) models Some of the tested compounds C4&C5 displayed promising anticonvulsant activity GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT

AMB Express ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Zi Ye ◽  
Tongrui Sun ◽  
Huoye Hao ◽  
Yanling He ◽  
Xueyan Liu ◽  

AbstractRhodosporidium toruloides is a useful oleaginous yeast, but lipids production is affected by various factors including nutrients in the culture medium. Herein, the R-ZL2 high-yield mutant strain was used to investigate the effects of different carbon sources (sucrose, glucose, xylose), nitrogen sources (ammonium sulphate, ammonium nitrate), and C/N ratio on lipids production capacity, get the following conclusion (1) Compared with glucose and xylose, sucrose was a superior carbon source for lipids production; (2) When using ammonium sulphate as the nitrogen source, a C/N ratio of 200:1 achieved the highest biomass, lipids production and lipids content (10.7 g/L, 6.32 g/L and 59%, respectively), and lipids produced under different C/N conditions have potential for biodiesel production (except for C/N = 40 and C/N = 80); (3) When using ammonium nitrate as the nitrogen source, a C/N ratio of 200:1 achieved the highest biomass, lipids production and lipids content (12.1 g/L, 8.25 g/L and 65%, respectively), and lipids produced under different C/N ratio conditions have potential for biodiesel production. Thus, a combination of sucrose and ammonium nitrate was optimal for the lipid accumulation in R-ZL2. The findings will lay a foundation for further improving lipids yields.

Bioenergy ◽  
2021 ◽  
B. M. Vokalchuk ◽  
Ya. D. Fuchylo

Purpose. Determine the optimal rate of nitrogen fertilizers for fertilizing energy plantations of willow  before the start of the second three-year cultivation cycle in the Central Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. Research methods. Field, analytical, statistical. Results and discussion. Appling of ammonium nitrate contributed to the active beginning of the growing season and the increase in the plant mass in hight. At the end of the first year of vegetation, the tallest plants were formed in variety ‘Tora’ using N70 – 4.67 m, which is more than in the control version (without fertilizer) by 0.71 m, or 16%. For N35, the average plant height was 4.32 m, which is 8% more than the control. The formation of more tall plants to restore more nitrogen was found in the variety’Ternopilska’. Hight of annual plant of this variety in control was 3.68 m, for application N35 – 4.08 m, and for dose N70 – 4.24 m. At the end of the second growing cycle, the average height of plants of the variety ‘Tora’ in  control variant was 6.29 m. The highest plants with the distribution of ammonium nitrate in the maximum dose (N70) were 6.78 m, which is more than in control variant by 8%. For the application of N35, the height of plants of the plantation was 6.52 m and 5.79 m. In this case, the decrease in the share affects the height of plants up to 15.4%, and the share affects the varietal characteristics of growth up to 82.9%. Also nitrogen had a positive effect on biomass growth. The yield of dry biomass of three-year-old energy willow plantation in the other part of cyclic production under control (without fertilizers) was 65.3  t/ha (21.8 t/ ha/year) of dry biomass in ‘Tora’ variety, and 55.6 t/ha (18.5 t/ha/year) in ‘Ternopilska’ variety. In the variants with the use of ammonium nitrate in the dose of N35, the indicator increased due to the control in variety ’Tora’ by 2.8 t/ha and by 3.7 t/ha in the variety ’Ternopilska’. Increasing the nitrogen dose to N70 increases the yield of dry biomass in the varieties’Tora’ and ’Ternopilska’ by 8.8 t/ha and 9.3 t/ha, respectively, compared to the control. Conclusions. The application of ammonium nitrate and varietal characteristics have a significant impact on the yield of energy biomass of willow. Of the two studied varieties of willow on chernozem soil of the Central Forest-Steppe of Ukraine, the variety’Tora’ was noted for more intensive growth and higher productivity during the second three-year growing cycle. Plants of both varieties are characterized by higher yields for nitrogen application at a dose of 70 kg/ha a.i.

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