The metal bioavailability concept is implemented in the Water Framework Directive (WFD) compliance assessment. The bioavailability assessment is usually performed by the application of user-friendly Biotic Ligand Models (BLMs), which require dissolved metal concentrations to be used with the “matching” data of the supporting physicochemical parameters of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), pH and Cadissolved. Many national surface water monitoring networks do not have sufficient matching data records, especially for DOC. In this study, different approaches for dealing with the missing DOC data are presented: substitution using historical data; the appropriate percentile of DOC concentrations; and combinations of the two. The applicability of the three following proposed substitution approaches is verified by comparison with the available matching data: (i) calculations from available TOC data; (ii) the 25th percentile of the joint Bulgarian monitoring network DOC data (measured and calculated by TOC); and (iii) the 25th percentile of the calculated DOC from the matching TOC data for the investigated surface water body (SWB). The application of user-friendly BLMs (BIO-MET, M-BAT and PNEC Pro) to 13 surface water bodies (3 reservoirs and 10 rivers) in the Bulgarian surface waters monitoring network outlines that the suitability of the substitution approaches decreases in order: DOC calculated by TOC > the use of the 25th percentile of the data for respective SWB > the use of the 25th percentile of the Bulgarian monitoring network data. Additionally, BIO-MET is the most appropriate tool for the bioavailability assessment of Cu, Zn and Pb in Bulgarian surface water bodies.
AbstractMega-earthquakes and extreme climate events accompanied by intrinsic fragile geology lead to numerous landslides along mountain highways in Taiwan, causing enormous life and economic losses. In this study, a system for rapid slope disaster information integration and assessment is proposed with the aim of providing information on landslide occurrence, failure mechanisms, and subsequent landslide-affected areas to the highway authority rapidly. The functionality of the proposed system is deployed into three units: (1) geohazard rapid report (GeoPORT I), (2) multidisciplinary geological survey report (GeoPORT II), and (3) site-specific landslide simulation report (GeoPORT III). After landslide occurrence, the seismology-based monitoring network rapidly provides the initial slope disaster information, including preliminary location, event magnitude, earthquake activity, and source dynamics, within an hour. Within 3 days of the landslide, a multidisciplinary geological survey is conducted to collect high-precision topographical, geological, and remote-sensing data to determine the possible failure mechanism. After integrating the aforementioned information, a full-scale three-dimensional landslide simulation based on the discrete element method is performed within 10 days to reveal the failure process and to identify the areas potentially affected by subsequent disasters through scenario modeling. Overall, the proposed system can promptly provide comprehensive and objective information to relevant authorities after the event occurrence for hazard assessment. The proposed system was validated using a landslide event in the Central Cross-Island Highway of Taiwan.
Context: The evaluation of air quality in Colombia is localized; it does not go beyond determining whether the level of the polluting gas at a specific point of the monitoring network has exceeded a threshold, according to a norm or standard, in order to trigger an alarm. It is not committed to objectives as important as the real-time identification of the dispersion dynamics of polluting gases in an area, or the prediction of the newly affected population. From this perspective, the presence of polluting gases was evaluated on the university campus of Escuela Colombiana de Ingeniería Julio Garavito, located north of the city of Bogotá, and the affected population was estimated for the month of October, 2019, using the Kriging geostatistical technique.
Method: This study is part of the design and construction of an auxiliary mobile station that monitors and reports complementary information (CO and SO2 gases) to that provided by the Guaymaral meteorological station, located in the north of Bogotá. This information is transmitted through an IoT network to a server, where a database is created which stores the information on polluting gases reported by the 14 stations of the Bogotá air quality monitoring network, the information sent by the auxiliary station, and the statistical information of the population present on the university campus. Pollutant gas data and population information recorded from October 1st to 31st, 2019, are the input for data analysis using the Kriging interpolation method and predicting the affected population on said campus.
Results: There is a particulate matter concentration of 29 µg/m3 of PM10 in the coliseum and 12,6 µg/m3 of PM2,5 in building G, in addition to 9,8 ppb of O3 in building I, 14,9 ppb of NO2 in that same building, 0,79 ppb of CO in building C, and 0,65 ppb of SO2 also in building C, thus allowing to infer, according to the Bogotá air quality index, a favorable air quality for a population of 2.131 people who visited the campus university during the aforementioned period.
Conclusions: The correct integration of the data in the web server and their analysis, carried out in the R language, allowed determining the approximate indicators of the polluting factors around Escuela Colombiana de Ingeniería Julio Garavito. Additionally, to determine the affected population, these indicators were correlated with the information on the registered population that entered the campus during the period under study. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that the air quality on the campus of Escuela Colombiana de Ingeniería Julio Garavito is favorable, and that 2.131 people benefited daily from these conditions.
The monitoring of environmental parameters in industrial areas where potential sources of pollution exist is very important from the point of view of prevention of environmental accidents. In this paper, we propose a solution for the monitoring of the environmental parameters with the local acquisition through specific environmental and movement sensors and data transmission to a higher hierarchical level through the use of MODBUS communications. A flexible hardware structure and software development concept are presented to offer local information and to be integrated into an environmental quality monitoring network.
Seismic source location is the most fundamental and most important problem in microseismic monitoring. However, only P wave has been mostly applied in the existing microseismic monitoring networks, with low location accuracy and poor stability of location result for the microseismic events occurring beyond monitoring networks. The seismic source location was implemented using P wave and S wave in this study to expand the effective monitoring area of a microseismic monitoring network and improve its location accuracy for microseismic events nearby the monitoring network. Then, the seismic source location mechanism using P-S wave was revealed through theoretical derivation and analysis. Subsequently, the program development and numerical simulation were combined to analyze and compare systematically the location effects of differently distributed monitoring networks, those consisting of different quantities of sensors, and those with S wave contained in some sensors under two circumstances: combination of P wave and S wave and single use of P wave. Results demonstrate that adding S wave in the plane enhances the accuracy control in the radius direction of the monitoring network. After S wave is included, the location accuracy within a certain area beyond the monitoring network is improved considerably, the effective monitoring area of the whole network is expanded, and the unstable location zones using only P wave are eliminated. The location results of differently distributed monitoring networks and the influence laws of the quantity of sensors constituting the networks on the location results are acquired. This study provides evidence for microseismic monitoring to realize accurate and stable location within a larger range.
Keywords: seismic source location, P wave and S wave, mechanism, location effect
Annual mean values of the turbidity coefficients at Indian Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network' (BAPMoN) were compared for the periods 1973-1980and 1981-1985. It was found that there is a general increase of turbidity during the latter period at all the stations except at Kodaikanal and Pune, suggesting the effect of anthropogenic sources of pollution. Short term influence of volcanic eruptions were also discernible from the observations at Kodaikanal. Spectral analysis (FFT) at these stations brought out the predominant modes which could be explained on the basis of climatology and aerosol dispersion characteristics. The long term atmospheric turbidity observations (1973-1985) presented in this paper provide reliable data set for assessing the aerosol impact on radiation climate.