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2022 ◽  
Emanuel Jauk ◽  
Gabriel Olaru ◽  
Eva Schürch ◽  
Mitja Back ◽  
Carolyn Morf

Narcissism is a multifaceted construct commonly conceptualized as comprising grandiose and vulnerable aspects in a two-factor model. While the manifold correlates of these aspects imposed a challenge for research on the structure of narcissism, recent models converge in a three-factor structure of agentic-extraverted, antagonistic, and neurotic aspects, capturing variance in different conceptualizations and correlates of narcissism. We construct and validate a German adaptation of the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI; Glover et al., 2012), a measure assessing these aspects based on the Five-Factor Model. In eight samples (N = 2,921), we found the German FFNI to align with both, two- and three-factor models. The factors display good criterion validity with other narcissism measures, (non-)clinical personality dimensions, interpersonal styles, and (mal-)adaptive adjustment. Neurotic and antagonistic narcissism discriminated between individuals with/without mental disorder diagnoses, and displayed a characteristic profile in incarcerated offenders. Since the FFNI is comprehensive but long, we constructed a 30-item brief-form (FFNI-BF) optimizing the internal structure and external validity using Ant Colony Optimization. The FFNI-BF displayed good psychometric characteristics and similar, in certain aspects even advantageous criterion validity. We conclude that the German FFNI validly measures key aspects of narcissism, and the FFNI-BF captures these in a concise manner.

Mathematics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 142
Konstantin B. Kostin ◽  
Philippe Runge ◽  
Michel Charifzadeh

This study empirically analyzes and compares return data from developed and emerging market data based on the Fama French five-factor model and compares it to previous results from the Fama French three-factor model by Kostin, Runge and Adams (2021). It researches whether the addition of the profitability and investment pattern factors show superior results in the assessment of emerging markets during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to developed markets. We use panel data covering eight indices of developed and emerging countries as well as a selection of eight companies from these markets, covering a period from 2000 to 2020. Our findings suggest that emerging markets do not generally outperform developed markets. The results underscore the need to reconsider the assumption that adding more factors to regression models automatically yields results that are more reliable. Our study contributes to the extant literature by broadening this research area. It is the first study to compare the performance of the Fama French three-factor model and the Fama French five-factor model in the cost of equity calculation for developed and emerging countries during the COVID-19 pandemic and other crisis events of the past two decades.

2022 ◽  
pp. 208-223
Helena Alves de Carvalho Sampaio ◽  
Lisidna Almeida Cabral

Food literacy is a sub-field of health literacy with a concept under construction, but corresponds to the ability to read, understand, and judge the quality of information; to seek and exchange knowledge related to the topics of food and nutrition; to buy and prepare food; to critically reflect on factors which influence personal choices about food and understand the impact of these choices on society. In turn, the ACP model is a three-factor communication model (assertiveness, clarity, and positivity) that aims to optimize education based on health literacy. The aim of this chapter is to present a proposal for food guidance which combines the foundations of the ACP model and food literacy for the different life cycles. The guidelines for each cycle were adapted to the ACP model. In conclusion, the ACP model can be applied to food literacy actions in any life cycle. However, it is worth mentioning that the professional's communicational behavior needs to be aligned with the assertiveness competence so that such actions are in fact effective.

Symmetry ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 46
Lianghong Zhu ◽  
Huaikun Xiang ◽  
Kai Zhang

Recently, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been widely used in a variety of fields, and make people’s lives more convenient and efficient. However, WSNs are usually deployed in a harsh and insecure environment. Furthermore, sensors with limited hardware resources have a low capacity for data processing and communication. For these reasons, research on efficient and secure real-time authentication and key agreement protocols based on the characteristics of WSNs has gradually attracted the attention of academics. Although many schemes have been proposed, most of them cannot achieve all known security features with satisfactory performance, among which anonymity, N-Factor security, and forward secrecy are the most vulnerable. In order to solve these shortcomings, we propose a new lightweight and anonymous three-factor authentication scheme based on symmetric cryptographic primitives for WSNs. By using the automated security verification tool ProVerif, BAN-logic verification, and an informal security analysis, we prove that our proposed scheme is secure and realizes all known security features in WSNs. Moreover, we show that our proposed scheme is practical and efficient through the comparison of security features and performance.

2021 ◽  
pp. 105477382110649
Li-Chun Hsiao ◽  
Chi-Jane Wang

Enhancing self-efficacy for calorie control and exercise is a crucial strategy for successful weight management. This study developed and psychometrically tested a 13-item quick checklist for assessing self-efficacy for calorie control and exercise (QCSE-CCE). A convenience sample of 425 adults between 18 and 69 years old completed the QCSE-CCE online. The principle axis factor analysis and a parallel analysis demonstrated a three-factor structure that accounts for 72.8% of the total variance. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good model fit (χ2/ df = 2.168, GFI = .913, AGFI = .873, RMR = .049, RMSEA = .073, CFI = .959). The predictive validity was adequate (.38 <  r < .39, p < .000), with Cronbach’s alphas ranging from .87 to .91. The test-retest demonstrated good stability ( r = .69; p < .001). The QCSE-CCE is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing self-efficacy for calorie control and exercise for weight management purposes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jordi Assens-Serra ◽  
Maria Boada-Cuerva ◽  
María-José Serrano-Fernández ◽  
Esther Villajos ◽  
Joan Boada-Grau

The Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument is a common instrument for measuring organizational culture in English-speaking countries based on four factors: Clan, ad hoc, Market and Hierarchy. However, to date, there is no proper translation of the scale into Spanish. In this study, we describe the translation and adaptation of the instrument through Exploratory Factor Analysis with a Spanish sample (n1 = 246; 69.9% men and 30.1% women) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis with a Peruvian sample (n2 = 510; 70.4% men and 29.6% women). The result reduces the four-factor internal structure to a three-factor structure that retains the Clan, Market and Hierarchy factors, but completely excludes the ad hoc factor. Confirmatory Factor Analysis shows acceptable indicators, reliabilities are good and indication of validity is also confirmed. In conclusion, this study has given rise to the instrument in Spanish, called OCAI-12, which is suitable for evaluating organizational culture.

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