Mixed Responses
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Bioethica ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
pp. 51
Adiba Firmansyah

The launch of a nationwide consultation in January 2021 by the UK Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) on the regulation of genetic technologies has been used as an opportunity by the UK Government to gauge public and scientific opinion on the applications of gene editing in agriculture and aquaculture. In particular, the consultation sought to consider the controversial question of whether gene editing (GE) should be subject to the same regulations as genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The distinction between GE and GMO products, as well as between the legal regulations governing them, are highly important: currently, the UK still follows the EU’s restrictive approach, whereby gene editing is regulated in the same way as GMOs. However, in light of the UK’s departure from the EU, the UK government seems willing to reconsider this approach and adopt a new regulatory framework characterised by less stringent controls. Accordingly, this review paper examines the current legal framework on gene editing and GMOs in the UK and EU, as well as in other relevant jurisdictions, before then examining the Defra consultation in light of the mixed responses to it from both the scientific community and the general public. The paper concludes with a number of considerations that should inform any proposed post-Brexit reform of the framework that allows for the correct balance to be struck between scientific development, food security, human health, and the environment. 

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Elspeth Guthrie ◽  
Daniel Romeu ◽  
Carolyn Czoski-Murray ◽  
Samuel Relton ◽  
Andrew Walker ◽  

Abstract Background In recent years the UK has expanded the provision of liaison mental health services (LMHS). Little work has been undertaken to explore first-hand experiences of them. Aims The aim of this study was to gain insights into the experiences of users of LMHS in both emergency departments and acute inpatient wards in the UK. Methods This cross-sectional internet survey was initially advertised from May-July 2017 using the social media platform Facebook. Due to a paucity of male respondents, it was re-run from November 2017-February 2018, specifically targeting male respondents. The survey featured a structured questionnaire divided into three categories: the profile of the respondent, perceived professionalism of LMHS and overall opinion of the service. Analysis Responses to the structured questionnaire were analysed using descriptive statistics and latent class analysis. Free-text responses were transcribed verbatim and interpreted using thematic analysis. Results 184 people responded to the survey. 147 were service users and 37 were partners, friends or family members of service users. Only 31% of service users and 27% of close others found their overall contact helpful. Latent class analysis identified three clusters − 46% of service users generally disliked their contact, 36% had an overall positive experience, and 18% did not answer most questions about helpfulness or usefulness. Features most frequently identified as important were the provision of a 24/7 service, assessment by a variety of healthcare professionals and national standardisation of services. Respondents indicated that the least important feature was the provision of a separate service for older people. They desired faster assessments following referral from the parent team, clearer communication about next steps and greater knowledge of local services and third sector organisations. Conclusions This survey identified mixed responses, but overall experiences were more negative than indicated in the limited previous research. The evaluation and adaptation of LMHS along the lines suggested in our survey should be prioritised to enhance their inherent therapeutic value and to improve engagement with treatment and future psychiatric care.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Kathryn L. Weston ◽  
Alison Innerd ◽  
Liane B. Azevedo ◽  
Susan Bock ◽  
Alan M. Batterham

Introduction: Over the last decade, research into the impact of school-based high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on young people's health has markedly increased. Despite this, most authors have focused on the outcomes of their intervention, rather than the process of how the study was conducted. The aim of our study, therefore, was to conduct a mixed methods process evaluation of Project FFAB (Fun Fast Activity Blasts), a school-based HIIT intervention for adolescents. The objectives were to explore study recruitment, reach, intervention dose, fidelity, participants' experiences, context, and future implementation.Methods: Recruitment was assessed by comparing the number of students who received study information, to those who provided consent. Reach was described as the number of participants who completed the intervention. Dose was reported via the number of HIIT sessions delivered, total exercise time commitment, HIIT exercise time, and session attendance. Post-intervention focus groups were conducted with intervention participants (n = 33; aged 14.1 ± 0.3 years; mean ± standard deviation). These discussions explored aspects of intervention fidelity (extent that the intervention was delivered as intended); participants' experiences of the HIIT sessions; context (exploration of the nuances of school-based HIIT); and ideas for future implementation.Results: Recruitment, reach, and dose data indicate that Project FFAB was largely delivered as planned. Focus group data identified a mismatch between perceived vs. prescribed work: rest ratio for the multi-activity HIIT drills. Generally, the HIIT drills were well-received; participants often reported they were fun to complete, and the use of heart rate monitors was helpful for interpreting exercise intensity. Some participants stated that greater variety in the HIIT drills would be preferable. The timing and structure of the HIIT sessions that took place outside of physical education lessons received mixed responses.Conclusion: Collectively, our study supports the use of school-based HIIT and provides valuable insights into how such interventions can be implemented. Project FFAB could be modified to account for individuals' preferences on when the exercise sessions took place. In addition, a wider range of activities could be included, and the prescribed work: rest ratio of the HIIT drills could be better communicated.

Mengnan Li ◽  
Zhou An ◽  
Qiusu Tang ◽  
Yutong Ma ◽  
Junrong Yan ◽  

eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Ariana R Andrei ◽  
Samantha Debes ◽  
Mircea Chelaru ◽  
Xiaoqin Liu ◽  
Elsa Rodarte ◽  

Cortical inactivation represents a key causal manipulation that allows the study of cortical circuits and their impact on behavior. A key assumption in these studies is that the neurons in the target area become silent while the surrounding cortical tissue is only negligibly impacted. However, individual neurons are embedded in complex local circuits comprised of excitatory and inhibitory cells with connections extending hundreds of microns. This raises the possibility that silencing one part of the network could induce complex, unpredictable activity changes in neurons outside the targeted inactivation zone. These off-target side effects can potentially complicate interpretations of inactivation manipulations, especially when they are related to changes in behavior. Here, we demonstrate that optogenetic inactivation of glutamatergic neurons in the superficial layers of monkey V1 induces robust suppression at the light-targeted site, but destabilizes stimulus responses in the neighboring, untargeted network. We identified 4 types of stimulus-evoked neuronal responses within a cortical column, ranging from full suppression to facilitation, and a mixture of both. Mixed responses were most prominent in middle and deep cortical layers. Importantly, these results demonstrate that response modulation driven by lateral network connectivity is diversely implemented throughout a cortical column. Furthermore, consistent behavioral changes induced by optogenetic inactivation were only achieved when cumulative network activity was homogeneously suppressed. Therefore, careful consideration of the full range of network changes outside the inactivated cortical region is required, as heterogeneous side-effects can confound interpretation of inactivation experiments.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1471082X2110374
Marco Alfò ◽  
Paolo Giordani

We discuss a flexible regression model for multivariate mixed responses. Dependence between outcomes is introduced via the joint distribution of discrete outcome- and individual-specific random effects that represent potential unobserved heterogeneity in each outcome profile. A different number of locations can be used for each margin, and the association structure is described by a tensor that can be further simplified by using the Parafac model. A case study illustrates the proposal.

Emma English ◽  
Laura E Cook ◽  
Isabelle Piec ◽  
Samir Dervisevic ◽  
William D Fraser ◽  

Background In the initial stages of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic a plethora of new serology tests were developed and introduced to the global market. Many were not evaluated rigorously and there is a significant lack of concordance in results across methods. To enable meaningful clinical decisions to be made, robustly evaluated, quantitative serology methods are needed. These should be harmonized to a primary reference material, allowing for the comparison of trial data and improved clinical decision making. Methods A comprehensive evaluation of the new Abbott IgG II anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG method was undertaken using CLSI based protocols. Two different candidate primary reference materials and verification panels were assessed with a goal to moving towards harmonization. Results The Abbott IgG II method performs well across a wide range of parameters with excellent imprecision (<3.5%) and is linear throughout the positive range (tested to 38,365 AU/mL). The sensitivity (based on ≥14 day post positive RT-PCR samples) and specificity are 98.3% [90.6-100.0%] and 99.5% [97.1-100%] respectively. The candidate reference materials showed poor correlation across methods with mixed responses noted in methods that use the spike protein versus the nucleocapsid proteins as their binding antigen. Conclusions The Abbott IgG II anti-SARS-CoV-2 measurement appears to be the first linear method potentially capable of monitoring the immune response to natural infection, including from new emerging variants. The candidate reference materials assessed do not generate uniform results across several methods and further steps are needed to enable the harmonization process.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 40-51
Junaidin Junaidin

This article is an analysis of the concepts of fana, baqa and Ittihat promoted by Abu Yazid al-Bustami. The understanding of Fana' which was developed by him is to state that when humans have reached the level of Fana', which means the loss of awareness of the existence of oneself and the environment, then he will be Baqa' which means continuous in the attributes of divinity. Namely, the eternal commendable attributes and attributes of God in humans and the peak is that humans can unite or ittihad with God so that the personal self becomes non-existent and there is only God. This understanding received mixed responses from the scholars. Shari'ah scholars or fiqh experts tend to state that this understanding is misleading and al-Bustami is said to be infidel, some consider it just a deviation and some understand that an understanding based on al-Bustami's expressions cannot be used as a guide because it was conveyed when he was not in his self-consciousness, but is subject to intuition when he is mortal', baqa', and Ittihad.

Haq Nawaz ◽  
Momna Aslam ◽  
Tanzila Rehman ◽  
Rabia Mehmood

Background: The effect of blend formation on emulsifying activity (EA) and emulsifying stability (ES) of some commonly used cereal and legume flours, using different oils, was studied. Methods: The blends of wheat flour (WF), refined wheat flour (RWF) and maize flour (MF) were prepared by mixing with equal proportions of chickpea flour (CPF) (1:1w/w) in a kitchen blender and analyzed for EA and ES using coconut, canola, corn, rapeseed and sunflower oils. Result: Statistically significant variations (p less than 0.05) were observed in the emulsifying properties of the flours and their blends. The blending of cereal flours with CPF showed mixed responses of variation in emulsifying properties from those of the respective pure flours. The EA of the blends was found to be increased from those of the pure WF and RWF but decreased from those of the pure MF and CPF with some exceptions. However, the ES of the blends was decreased from that of the pure WF and increased from those of the pure RWF, MF and CPF. The data would be a valuable contribution to the literature regarding the improvement of functional properties of cereal foods. 

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Vaishali Vasudeva ◽  
Pitchai Ramasamy ◽  
Rabi Sankar Pal ◽  
Gatikrishna Behera ◽  
Pradeep Raj Karat ◽  

Local communities are an important stakeholder in any carnivore translocation programme and therefore, their acceptance of the translocation and support are essential to ensure its viability. Recent tiger augmentation efforts in Satkosia Tiger Reserve, India received mixed responses from the local communities, causing a stalemate in its progress. As a part of the adaptive management strategy, it was required to assess the concerns and issues to provide a practical solution. Hence, we analyzed the attitude of the people toward conservation in general and tiger specifically. We used structured questionnaire surveys and interviewed 1,932 households from 43 villages located in and around the reserve. We tested the influence of several variables representing four categories- (1) socio-economic, (2) ecosystem values and dependence, (3) relationship with the forest department and (4) losses and fear, on the attitude toward tiger conservation. The villages were clustered based on the responses received under these categories. While conserving forest was important to 91% of respondents, 71% of respondents supported wildlife conservation and only 35% felt important to conserve tiger. The logistic binary regression predicted that at the household level attitude toward tiger conservation is influenced positively by economic well-being, sense of forest ecosystem services, resource dependence and negatively influenced by restrictions from the forest department, and previous experience of loss due to wildlife. At the village level, literacy, resource dependence, access to clean cooking fuel and cooperation from the forest department predicted a positive attitude toward tiger conservation. Restriction from the forest department, fear for livestock, and experience of losses due to wildlife had a negative influence on attitude. We recommend that the villages in the landscape are prioritized based on their needs and accordingly, specific interventions are made to address their concerns. Future augmentation programme must give importance to intangible factors such as fear and perceived restrictions and opt for the involvement of the local community in the decision-making process.

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