wheat flour
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Sulagna Ghose

Abstract: Cookies are made in many wide ranges of processing and product characteristics. These cookies are made from Quinoa flour which are grounded into fine powder. Cookies had been made by different methods using different ingredients by different cultures. The main aim for this prepared cookie was to developed a cookie using Quinoa flour with Bean powder supplemented with Rolled Oatmeal. The Quinoa flour and the Bean powder are being treated at different levels. (T0) is made as normal cookie found in market with white wheat flour by using 65.2g of white wheat flour and other ingredients i.e., Extra virgin olive oil, Brown sugar and baking powder as (65.2:14:20:0.8) which is served as control, in (T1) with 35.2g of Quinoa flour and 15g of Bean powder i.e., (35.2:15), in (T2) with 30.2g of Quinoa flour and 20g of Bean powder i.e., (30.2:20), in (T3) with 25.5g Quinoa flour and 25g Bean powder i.e., (25.2:25). The study was conducted to developed cookies fortified with Quinoa flour, Bean powder and Rolled Oatmeal. Trials were conducted to adjust the most acceptable levels of Quinoa flour (35.2g, 30.2g and 25.2g) and Bean powder (15g, 20g and 25g) on the basis of physio-chemical analysis of the product. The Final optimized product contains 1 which was highly acceptable and can be used to develop a product without adversely affecting the sensory attributes. The cookies prepared without addition of Quinoa flour and Bean powder supplemented with Rolled Oatmeal was treated as Control. The optimized product contains 4.13% Vitamin C, 5.13% Antioxidant and 5.92% Dietary Fiber. The product possesses good level of Vitamin C, Dietary fiber and Antioxidant. Keywords: Quinoa flour, bean powder, Rolled oatmeal, Extra virgin olive oil, Baking powder, White wheat flour, Sugar, Cookies, Physico -chemical analysis, Vitamin C, Antioxidant, Dietary fiber.

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 207
Jana van Rooyen ◽  
Senay Simsek ◽  
Samson Adeoye Oyeyinka ◽  
Marena Manley

Heat treatment is used as a pre-processing step to beneficially change the starch properties of wheat flour to enhance its utilisation in the food industry. Heat-treated wheat flour may provide improved eating qualities in final wheat-based products since flour properties predominantly determine the texture and mouthfeel. Dry heat treatment of wheat kernels or milled wheat products involves heat transfer through means of air, a fluidising medium, or radiation—often resulting in moisture loss. Heat treatment leads to changes in the chemical, structural and functional properties of starch in wheat flour by inducing starch damage, altering its molecular order (which influences its crystallinity), pasting properties as well as its retrogradation and staling behaviour. Heat treatment also induces changes in gluten proteins, which may alter the rheological properties of wheat flour. Understanding the relationship between heat transfer, the thermal properties of wheat and the functionality of the resultant flour is of critical importance to obtain the desired extent of alteration of wheat starch properties and enhanced utilisation of the flour. This review paper introduces dry heat treatment methods followed by a critical review of the latest published research on heat-induced changes observed in wheat flour starch chemistry, structure and functionality.

2022 ◽  
pp. 55-58
Юлия Юрьевна Никонорова ◽  
Лариса Александровна Косых ◽  
Любовь Федоровна Сыркина

Для больных целиакией стоит проблема при составлении рациона питания, в основном это отказ от изделий, которые содержат в своем составе глютен. Перед хлебопекарными предприятиями стоит задача расширить ассортимент безглютеновых продуктов. При изготовлении продуктов, не содержащих глютен, применяют нетрадиционное сырье: к такому сырью относится сорговая мука. Зерно сорго универсально в использовании, в зависимости от сорта его используют как на пищевые цели, так и на кормовые и промышленные. Цель работы - изучение возможности применения сорговой муки из разных сортов для изготовления функциональных безглютеновых кексов. Анализ оценки качества муки и готовых изделий осуществляли органолептическим и физико-химическим способом. Исследованы показатели качества готовых изделий: пшеничной муки высшего сорта и цельносмолотой, полученной из озимой пшеницы сорта Поволжская Нива, а также цельносмолотой сорговой муки из сортов Рось, Державное, Вера и линии Л-246/17. При определении органолептических и физико-химических показателей выявлено, что цвет муки у контрольных образцов был белый и бежевый. У цельносмолотой сорговой муки в зависимости от сорта от светло-бежевого до коричневого. Влажность муки была в норме и не превышала 15 %. По данным фракционного состава белка, самое низкое содержание глютелинов оказалось у линии Л-246/17 (7,98 %), тогда как у пшеничной муки высшего сорта 31,17 %. Хлебопекарная оценка готовых изделий показала, что все кексы со слегка выпуклой формой корки, пропеченные. Объем и удельный объем кексов из цельносмолотой муки сортов Рось, Державное и линии Л-246/17 больше по сравнению с контрольным образцом из цельносмолотой муки пшеницы сорта Поволжская Нива. Проведен сравнительный анализ сортов зернового сорго для применения их в пищевой промышленности, в качестве безглютенового сырья для производства кондитерских изделий. For patients with celiac disease, there is a problem when compiling a diet, mainly it is the rejection of products that contain gluten in their composition. Bakeries are faced with the task of expanding the range of gluten-free products. In the manufacture of gluten-free products, non-traditional raw materials are used, such raw materials include sorghum flour. Sorghum grain is universal in use, depending on the variety, it is used both for food purposes, and for feed and industrial purposes. The purpose of the work is to study the possibility of using sorghum flour from different varieties for the production of functional gluten-free cupcakes. The analysis of the evaluation of the quality of flour and finished products was carried out by organoleptic and physico-chemical methods. The quality indicators of finished products were studied: wheat flour of the highest grade and whole-ground wheat obtained from winter wheat of the Volga Niva variety, as well as whole - ground sorghum flour from the Ros, Derzhavnoye, Vera varieties and the L-246/17 line. When determining the organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters, it was revealed that the color of the flour in the control samples was white and beige. For whole-ground sorghum flour, depending on the variety, from light beige to brown. The moisture content of the flour was normal and did not exceed 15 %. According to the fractional composition of the protein, the lowest content of glutelins was found in the L-246/17 line 7.98 %, while wheat flour of the highest grade - 31.17 %. The bakery evaluation of the finished products showed that all the cupcakes with a slightly convex crust shape are baked. The volume and specific volume of cupcakes made of whole-ground flour of the Ros, Derzhavnoye varieties and the L-246/17 line is higher compared to the control sample made of whole-ground wheat flour of the Volga Niva variety. A comparative analysis of varieties of grain sorghum for their use in the food industry, as gluten-free raw materials for the production of confectionery products is carried out

P.V.K. Jagannadha Rao ◽  
P. Sreedevi ◽  
Y. Navaneetha ◽  
K. Kiranmayi ◽  
M. Bharathalakshmi

Background: Jowar (Sorghum) is one of the most popular millet grown in tropical and semi-arid regions. The present study was aimed to design and develop the process technology for the preparation of biscuits from blends of jowar and jaggery by replacing wheat flour. Methods: The biscuits were analysed for physico-chemical and sensory properties. The proportions taken were 30:70:60, 40:60:60, 50:50:60, 60:40:60, 70:30:60 and 100:0:60 of jowar flour, whole wheat flour and jaggery respectively. Sensory evaluation was performed by using composite scoring test and means were evaluated by Krushkal Walli H-Test. Result: Sensory evaluation revealed that the ratio of 100:0:60 (SWJ 6) jowar, whole wheat flour and jaggery has highest acceptability and was considered for further studies. The physical parameters of biscuits such as mass (20 g), thickness (7 mm), spread factor (64.28), diameter (45 mm) and color values were determined. The texture analysis revealed that the biscuits held hardness (32.5 g), fracturability (8.60 mm) and cutting strength (3.390 kg). Proximate analysis was estimated as energy (583 kcal), carbohydrate (92.6 g), protein (10.8 g), fat (4.8 g), crude fibre (8.6 g), calcium (46 mg), zinc (58.3 mg), iron (16.1 mg) and potassium (420 mg) per 100 g for SWJ 6 proportion.

Sarwahita ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (01) ◽  
pp. 108-118
Mahdiyah Mahdiyah ◽  
Mutiara Dahlia ◽  
Fildzah Rudyah Putri ◽  
Hana Sonia ◽  
Monnica Dwi S

Abstract  Churros and éclairs have almost the same type of dough and are easy to process. Currently, churros and éclair are snacks that are trending and much favored by the public, especially teenagers and children. Thus, churros and éclair become snacks that have a great opportunity to be seeded as business products with great potential. Both use the main ingredient in the form of wheat flour, which until now is still an imported product. Optimal use of local food ingredients to substitute for imported food is a government program that we should support and assist in its realization. While cassava is one of the local food ingredients found in almost all regions of Indonesia. In this case, by using science and technology, this cassava can be further processed into flour which can later function as a substitute for wheat flour. Through Community Service activities, the use of cassava as a substitute for wheat flour in making churros and éclairs is socialized to the wider community. The activities carried out consisted of stages 1) Delivery of material information; 2) Preparation and preparation of formulas; 3) Implementation of entrepreneurial training in the practice of making churros and eclairs; and 4) Product evaluation and discussion. The purpose of this community service activity (PKM) is to help improve the family's economy through the production of churros and éclair substitutes for cassava flour. The results of this PKM activity were assessed by the participants, that the way of delivery and the suitability of the material, the process of making Churros and Eclair, the duration generally described a positive value and gave a high level of satisfaction. So that there is a desire to do similar activities again.    Abstrak Churros dan éclair merupakan kue yang memiliki jenis adonan yang hampir sama dan mudah proses pengolahannya. Saat ini churros dan éclair merupakan makanan ringan yang sedang trend dan banyak digemari oleh kalangan masyarakat, utamanya remaja dan anak-anak. Dengan demikian, churros dan éclair menjadi makanan ringan yang memiliki peluang besar untuk diunggulkan sebagai produk usaha yang sangat potensial. Keduanya menggunakan bahan utama berupa tepung terigu, yang selama ini masih berupa produk import. Penggunaan bahan pangan lokal secara optimal untuk pengganti pangan impor merupakan program pemerintah yang seharusnya kita dukung dan bantu dalam perealisasiannya. Sementara singkong merupakan salah satu bahan pangan lokal yang ditemui hampir di seluruh daerah Indonesia. Dalam hal ini, dengan menggunakan iptek, singkong ini dapat diolah lebih lanjut menjadi tepung yang nantinya dapat berfungsi sebagai subtitusi tepung terigu. Melalui kegiatan Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat, pemanfaatan singkong sebagai substitusi tepung terigu dalam pembuatan churros dan éclair ini disosialisasikan kepada masyarakat luas. Kegiatan yang dilakukan terdiri dari tahap 1) Penyampaian informasi materi; 2) Persiapan dan pembuatan formula; 3) Pelaksanaan pelatihan kewirausahaan praktik pembuatan churros dan éclair; dan 4) Evaluasi produk dan diskusi. PKM ini dilaksanakan secara online pada tanggal 16 September 2021. Tujuan kegiatan pengabdian kepada masyarakat (PKM) ini adalah membantu meningkatkan perekonomian keluarga melalui produksi churros dan éclair subtitusi tepung singkong. Hasil kegiatan PKM ini dinilai peserta, bahwa cara penyampaian dan kesesuaian materi, proses pembuatan churros dan éclair, durasi secara umum menggambarkan nilai positif dan memberi tingkat kepuasan yang tinggi. Sehingga ada keinginan dilakukan kembali kegiatan sejenis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Amnah Mohammed Alsuhaibani ◽  
Amal Nassir Alkuraieef ◽  
Moneera Othman Aljobair ◽  
Amal Hassan Alshawi

Background. Biscuits are consumed by all of society in the world. Incorporation of different ratios of quinoa flour into wheat flour for the production of biscuits is needed for the production of functional foods. Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the incorporation of 12.5% or 25% quinoa flour into biscuit production, evaluate rheological and sensory characteristics, and investigate the effect of the consumption of 20% cooked biscuits on diabetic rats. Design. The gross chemical composition, total carotenoids, phenolic and flavonoids of wheat flour and quinoa flour, and the rheological properties of the control, 12.5% quinoa, and 25% quinoa biscuit dough were determined. The effects of consumption of 12.5% quinoa and 25% quinoa biscuits on diabetic rats were investigated. Results. Quinoa flour had significantly higher levels of the gross chemical composition except for carbohydrate and increased phenolic compound and flavonoids content than those in wheat flour. Increasing the amount of quinoa flour in the biscuits could increase the farinograph and extensograph values of the dough. Biological results showed that the highest improvement in nutritional values appeared in the diabetic rat group, which consumed 25% quinoa biscuit for 60 days. The consumption of 12.5% quinoa biscuit and 25% quinoa biscuit showed a decline in blood glycosylated hemoglobin and glucose and an elevation in insulin levels compared with the positive control diabetic rat group. Discussion and Conclusion. It is encouraging to replace wheat flour with quinoa flour in biscuit manufacturing owing to positive effects on both the technological properties and sensory evaluation of biscuits. The increase of quinoa flour up to 25% had favorable nutritional values and hypoglycemic effects.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (6) ◽  
Siti Nurhadia ◽  
Hermanto Hermanto ◽  
Suwarjoyowirayatno Suwarjoyowirayatno

ABSTRACTThis study aimed to determine the effect of golden apple snail and chicken meat substitution on the organoleptic characteristics and nutritional values of chicken nuggets. This study used a single factor completely randomized design (CRD), with five levels of treatment, namely P0 (0% golden apple snail meat: 50% chicken meat: 50% wheat flour), P1 (45% golden apple snail meat: 5% chicken meat: 50% flour), P2 (40% golden apple snail meat: 10% chicken meat: 50% flour), P3 (35% golden apple snail meat: 15% chicken meat: 50% flour), and P4 (30% golden apple snail meat: 52% chicken meat: 50% flour). Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The results show that the substitution treatment of golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata l.) and chicken meat had a very significant effect on increasing color, taste, aroma, and texture. The P1 treatment (45% golden apple snail meat; 5% chicken meat and 50% wheat flour) was the most preferred treatment by panelists with preference scores of color, aroma, texture, and taste reached 3.74 (like), 3.93 (like), 3.68 (like), and 3.68 (like), respectively. Meanwhile, the analysis of the nutritional values shows that the selected treatment contained 30.68% water, 2.44% ash, 10.24% fat, 9.04% protein, and 47.6% carbohydrates. Based on the standard of SNI 01-6638-2002, the golden apple snail and chicken meat nuggets met the quality standards on water, ash, and protein contents.Keywords: golden apple snail meat, chicken meat, nuggets.ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh subtitusi keong mas dan daging ayam terhadap karakteristik organoleptik dan nilai gizi pada pembuatan nugget. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak lengkap (RAL) faktor tunggal, dengan lima Perlakuan P0 (daging keong mas 0% : daging ayam 50% : tepung terigu 50%), P1 (daging keong mas 45% : daging ayam 5% : tepung terigu 50%), P2 (daging keong mas 40% : daging ayam 10% : tepung terigu 50%), P3 (daging keong mas 35% : daging ayam 15% : tepung terigu 50%) dan P4 (daging keong mas 30% : daging ayam 52% : tepung terigu 50%). Data dianalisis menggunakan Analysis of Varian (ANOVA). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan Substitusi daging keong mas (pomacea canaliculata l.) dan daging ayam berpengaruh sangat nyata terhadap peningkatan warna, rasa, aroma dan tekstur.. Perlakuan P1 (daging keong mas 45%; daging ayam 5% dan tepung terigu 50%) merupakan perlakuan yang paling disukai panelis dengan skor penilaian kesukaan terhadap warna, aroma, tekstur dan rasa berturut-turut sebesar 3,74 (suka), 3,93 (suka), 3,68 (suka), 3,68 (suka), sedangkan berdasarkan analisis nilai gizi meliputi kadar air, abu, lemak, protein dan karbohidrat berturut-turut sebesar 30,68%, 2,44%, 10,24%, 9,04% dan 47,6%. Berdasarkan standar mutu SNI 01-6638-2002 produk nugget daging keong mas dan daging ayam telah memenuhi standar mutu pada kadar air, kadar abu, dan kadar protein. Sedangkan kadar lemak dan kadar karbohidrat belum memenuhi standar mutu SNI 01-6638-2002Kata kunci: daging keong mas, daging ayam, nugget.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (6) ◽  
Sartika Sartika ◽  
Tamrin Tamrin ◽  
Sri Rejeki

ABSTRACTThis study aimed to determine the effect of breadfruit flour and green seaweed flour formulation on the physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of wet noodles. This study used a completely randomized design (CRD) using the formulations of wheat flour, breadfruit flour and green seaweed flour M1 (70:28:2), M2 (70:26:4), M3 (70:24:6), and M4 (70:22:8). The results show that the formulation of breadfruit flour and green seaweed flour had a very significant effect on improving the organoleptic characteristics of color, aroma, taste, and texture of wet noodles. The best product based on the organoleptic assessment was found in the M4 formulation (70% wheat flour formulation, 22% breadfruit flour, and 8% green seaweed flour) with assessment scores of color, aroma, taste, and texture, reached 3.81 (like), 2.98 (slightly like), 2.92 (slightly like) and 3.84 (like), respectively. The chemical analysis shows that the best wet noodle product contaiend 57.68% water, 1.23% ash, and 0.09% crude fiber. The highest antioxidant activity was obtained in the M4 treatment, which reached 62.50%. Based on the results of the study, the wet noodle product with the formulation of breadfruit flour and green seaweed flour was preferred by the panelists and met the national standards for ash and water contents.Keywords: wet noodle, fermented cassava flour, breadfruit flourABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan pengaruh formulasi tepung sukun dan tepung rumput laut hijau terhadap karakteristik fisikokimia dan organoleptik mie basah. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL) dengan menggunakan formulasi tepung terigu, tepung sukun dan tepung rumput laut hijau M1 (70:28:2), M2 (70:26:4), M3 (70:24:6), M4 (70:22:8). Hasil penilaian menunjukan bahwa formulasi tepung sukun dan tepung rumput laut hijau berpengaruh sangat nyata terhadap peningkatan uji organoleptik warna, aroma, rasa dan tekstur mie basah. Berdasarkan penilaian organoleptik terdapat pada formulasi M4 (formulasi tepung terigu 70%, tepung ubi sukun 22%, dan tepung rumput laut hijau 8%) dengan skor penilaian terhadap karakteristik organoleptik warna 3,81 ( suka), aroma 2,98 (agak suka), rasa 2,92 (agak suka) dan tekstur 3,84 (suka). Nilai analisis kimia dari produk mie basah terbaik meliputi : kadar air 57,68%, kadar abu 1,23%, kadar serat kasar 0,09%. Aktivitas antioksidan tertinggi pada perlakuan M4 (terigu 70%: tepung sukun 22% : dan tepung rumput laut 8%) sebesar 62,50%. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, produk Mie basah formulasi tepung sukun dan tepung rumput laut hijau dapat diterima (disukai) oleh panelis dan memiliki kadar abu dan kadar air yang telah memenuhi standar SNI.Kata kunci: mie basah, tepung sukun, tepung rumput laut hijau.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (6) ◽  
Ona Sri Vatma ◽  
Ansharullah Ansharullah ◽  
Asnani Asnani

ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the addition of sea cucumber flour on the organoleptic and proximate characteristics of wet noodles. This study consisted of four treatments, namely without the addition of sand sea cucumber flour (T0), the addition of 5% sea cucumber flour (T1), the addition of 10% sea cucumber flour (T2), and the addition of 15% sea cucumber flour (T3). The analyzed parameters were organoleptic and physicochemical values. This study used a completely randomized design (CRD). Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and continued with Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at a 95% confidence level. The results show that the effect of adding sand sea cucumber flour had a very significant effect on organoleptic assessment in T1 treatment (95% wheat flour: 5% sea cucumber flour) with preference scores of color, aroma, taste, and texture reached 4.03 (like), 4.06 (like), 3.91 (like), and 4.06 (like). Proximate analysis of the best treatment shows that it contained 50.12% water, 1.18% ash, 0.20% fat, 7.23% protein, and 41.75% carbohydrate. The results show that the product met the standard of SNI 01-2987-1992 for ash, fat, and protein contents. Keywords: Sea Cucumber, Wet NoodlesABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini untuk menentukan pengaruh penambahan tepung teripang pasir terhadap karakteristik organoleptik dan proksimat mie basah. Penelitian ini terdiri dari empat perlakuan yaitu tanpa penambahan tepung teripang pasir (T0), penambahan tepung teripang pasir 5% (T1), penambahan tepung teripang pasir 10% (T2), dan penambahan tepung teripang pasir 15% (T3), lalu dianalisis terhadap nilai organoleptik dan fisikokimia. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL). Data di analisis menggunakan Analysis of Varian (ANOVA) dan dilanjutkan dengan uji Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) pada taraf kepercayaan 95%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pengaruh penambahan tepung teripang pasir berpengaruh sangat nyata terhadap penilaian organoleptik pada perlakuan T1 (tepung terigu 95% : tepung teripang pasir 5%) sebesar warna 4.03 (suka), aroma 4.06 (suka), rasa 3.91 (suka), dan tekstur 4.06 (suka). Analisis proksimat perlakuan terbaik diperoleh nilai kadar air 50.12%, kadar abu 1.18%, kadar lemak 0.20%, kadar protein 7.23% dan kadar karbohidrat 41.75%. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian nilai kadar abu, kadar lemak, dan kadar protein telah memenuhi SNI 01-2987-1992.Kata kunci: Teripang Pasir, Mie Basah

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