Electron Impact
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Wan Dong ◽  
Yi Fan Zhang ◽  
ZhongLing Dai ◽  
Julian Schulze ◽  
Yuan-Hong Song ◽  

Abstract Radio frequency capacitively coupled plasmas (RF CCPs) sustained in fluorocarbon gases or their mixtures with argon are widely used in plasma-enhanced etching. In this work, we conduct studies on instabilities in a capacitive CF4/Ar (1:9) plasma driven at 13.56 MHz at a pressure of 150 mTorr, by using a one-dimensional fluid/Monte-Carlo (MC) hybrid model. Fluctuations are observed in densities and fluxes of charged particles, electric field, as well as electron impact reaction rates, especially in the bulk. As the gap distance between the electrodes increases from 2.8 cm to 3.8 cm, the fluctuation amplitudes become smaller gradually and the instability period gets longer, as the driving power density ranges from 250 to 300 W/m2. The instabilities are on a time scale of 16-20 RF periods, much shorter than those millisecond periodic instabilities observed experimentally owing to attachment/detachment in electronegative plasmas. At smaller electrode gap, a positive feedback to the instability generation is induced by the enhanced bulk electric field in the highly electronegative mode, by which the electron temperature keeps strongly oscillating. Electrons at high energy are mostly consumed by ionization rather than attachment process, making the electron density increase and overshoot to a much higher value. And then, the discharge becomes weakly electronegative and the bulk electric field becomes weak gradually, resulting in the continuous decrease of the electron density as the electron temperature keeps at a much lower mean value. Until the electron density attains its minimum value again, the instability cycle is formed. The ionization of Ar metastables and dissociative attachment of CF4 are noticed to play minor roles compared with the Ar ionization and excitation at this stage in this mixture discharge. The variations of electron outflow from and negative ion inflow to the discharge center need to be taken into account in the electron density fluctuations, apart from the corresponding electron impact reaction rates. We also notice more than 20% change of the Ar+ ion flux to the powered electrode and about 16% difference in the etching rate due to the instabilities in the case of 2.8 cm gap distance, which is worthy of more attention for improvement of etching technology.

Atoms ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 5
Anand K. Bhatia

The excitation cross-sections of the nS states of atomic hydrogen, n = 2 to 6, by electron impact on the ground state of atomic hydrogen were calculated using the variational polarized-orbital method at various incident electron energies in the range 10 to 122 eV. Converged excitation cross-sections were obtained using sixteen partial waves (L = 0 to 15). Excitation cross-sections to 2S state, calculated earlier, were calculated at higher energies than before. Results obtained using the hybrid theory (variational polarized orbital method) are compared to those obtained using other approaches such as the Born–Oppenheimer, close-coupling, R-matrix, and complex-exterior scaling methods using only the spherical symmetric wave functions. Phase shifts and elastic cross-sections are given at various energies and angular momenta. Excitation rate coefficients were calculated at various electron temperatures, which are required for plasma diagnostics in solar and astrophysics to infer plasma parameters. Excitation cross-sections are compared with those obtained by positron impact excitation.

Atoms ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 2
Annarita Laricchiuta ◽  
Roberto Celiberto ◽  
Gianpiero Colonna

The Binary-Encounter Bethe approach was applied to the estimation of total ionization induced by electron impact in metastable states of diatomic molecules. The cross sections recently obtained for N2 and CO are reviewed and the new results for H2 are presented, discussing their reliability through the comparison with other theoretical methods.

Vincent Graves ◽  
Bridgette Cooper ◽  
Jonathan Tennyson

Abstract There are many measurements and calculations of total electron impact ionisation cross sections. However, many applications, particularly in plasma physics, also require fragmentation patterns. Approximate methods of deducing partial cross sections are tested based on the use of total cross section computed within the well-used Binary Encounter Bethe (BEB) approximation. Partial ionisation cross sections for three series of molecules including CH$_4$, CF$_4$ and CCl$_4$; SiH$_4$ and SiCl$_4$; NH$_3$ and PH$_3$, were estimated using two methods. Method one is semi-empirical and uses mass spectroscopy data to fix the partial cross sections at a single electron energy. The second is a a fully computational method proposed by Huber {\it et al.} (2019, J. Chem. Phys., 150, 024306). Comparisons with experimental results suggest that the mass spectroscopy method is more accurate. However, as Huber's method requires no experimental input, this method could be used as a first approximation when no experimental data is available. As mass spectroscopy sometimes provides incomplete datasets, a hybrid method based on the use of both methods is also explored.

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