Journal of Physics B Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics
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1361-6455, 0953-4075

Author(s):  
Gihan Basnayake ◽  
Yasashri Ranathunga ◽  
Suk Kyoung Lee ◽  
Wen Li

Abstract The velocity map imaging (VMI) technique was first introduced by Eppink and Parker in 1997, as an improvement to the original ion imaging method by Houston and Chandler in 1987. The method has gained huge popularity over the past two decades and has become a standard tool for measuring high-resolution translational energy and angular distributions of ions and electrons. VMI has evolved gradually from 2D momentum measurements to 3D measurements with various implementations and configurations. The most recent advancement has brought unprecedented 3D performance to the technique in terms of resolutions (both spatial and temporal), multi-hit capability as well as acquisition speed while maintaining many attractive attributes afforded by conventional VMI such as being simple, cost-effective, visually appealing and versatile. In this tutorial we will discuss many technical aspects of the recent advancement and its application in probing correlated chemical dynamics.


Author(s):  
Ting XIE ◽  
Andrea Orbán ◽  
Xiaodong Xing ◽  
Eliane Luc-Koenig ◽  
Romain Vexiau ◽  
...  

Abstract Ultracold temperatures in dilute quantum gases opened the way to an exquisite control of matter at the quantum level. Here we focus on the control of ultracold atomic collisions using a laser to engineer their interactions at large interatomic distances. We show that the entrance channel of two colliding ultracold atoms can be coupled to a repulsive collisional channel by the laser light so that the overall interaction between the two atoms becomes repulsive: this prevents them to come close together and to undergo inelastic processes, thus protecting the atomic gases from unwanted losses. We illustrate such an optical shielding mechanism with 39K and 133Cs atoms colliding at ultracold temperature (<1 microkelvin). The process is described in the framework of the dressed-state picture and we then solve the resulting stationary coupled Schrödinger equations. The role of spontaneous emission and photoinduced inelastic scattering is also investigated as possible limitations of the shielding efficiency. We predict an almost complete suppression of inelastic collisions over a broad range of Rabi frequencies and detunings from the 39K D2 line of the optical shielding laser, both within the [0, 200 MHz] interval. We found that the polarization of the shielding laser has a minor influence on this efficiency. This proposal could easily be formulated for other bialkali-metal pairs as their long-range interaction are all very similar to each other.


Author(s):  
Johannes Fiedler ◽  
Bodil Holst

Abstract Fast, large area patterning of arbitrary structures down to the nanometre scale is of great interest for a range of applications including the semiconductor industry, quantum electronics, nanophotonics and others. It was recently proposed that nanometre-resolution mask lithography can be realised by sending metastable helium atoms through a binary holography mask consisting of a pattern of holes. However, these first calculations were done using a simple scalar wave approach, which did not consider the dispersion force interaction between the atoms and the mask material. To access the true potential of the idea, it is necessary to access how this interaction affects the atoms. Here we present a theoretical study of the dispersion force interaction between an atom and a dielectric membrane with a hole. We look at metastable and ground state helium, using experimentally realistic wavelengths (0.05-1 nm) and membrane thicknesses (5-50 nm). We find that the effective hole radius is reduced by around 1-7 nm for metastable helium and 0.5-3.5 nm for ground-state helium. As expected, the reduction is largest for thick membranes and slow atoms.


Author(s):  
Noboru Watanabe ◽  
Masahiko Takahashi

Abstract We report a theoretical study of electronic excitation in CH3Cl and CF3Cl by electron impact. Momentum-transfer-dependent generalized oscillator strengths (GOSs) are calculated for transitions to low-lying excited singlet-states at the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster singles and doubles level. The influence of molecular vibration is taken into account in the calculation. The theoretical results show reasonable overall agreement with experimental data reported in the literature. The shapes of the GOS profiles reveal that the 1 1E state of CH3Cl has a valence-Rydberg mixed nature, while that of CF3Cl is of a predominant C-Cl antibonding character. A comparison with the experimental GOSs of CH3Cl provides unambiguous evidence that the 3pe state is lower in energy than the 3pa1 state. Optical oscillator strengths are also calculated and comparison is made with available experimental and other theoretical results.


Author(s):  
Elias Andre Starchl ◽  
Helmut Ritsch

Abstract Quantum annealing aims at finding optimal solutions to complex optimization problems using a suitable quantum many body Hamiltonian encoding the solution in its ground state. To find the solution one typically evolves the ground state of a soluble, simple initial Hamiltonian adiabatically to the ground state of the designated final Hamiltonian. Here we explore whether and when a full quantum representation of the dynamics leads to higher probability to end up in the desired ground when compared to a classical mean field approximation. As simple but nontrivial example we target the ground state of interacting bosons trapped in a tight binding lattice with small local defect by turning on long range interactions. Already two atoms in four sites interacting via two cavity modes prove complex enough to exhibit significant differences between the full quantum model and a mean field approximation for the cavity fields mediating the interactions. We find a large parameter region of highly successful quantum annealing, where the semi-classical approach largely fails. Here we see strong evidence for the importance of entanglement to end close to the optimal solution. The quantum model also reduces the minimal time for a high target occupation probability. Surprisingly, in contrast to naive expectations that enlarging the Hilbert space is beneficial, different numerical cut-offs of the Hilbert space reveal an improved performance for lower cut-offs, i.e. an nonphysical reduced Hilbert space, for short simulation times. Hence a less faithful representation of the full quantum dynamics sometimes creates a higher numerical success probability in even shorter time. However, a sufficiently high cut-off proves relevant to obtain near perfect fidelity for long simulations times in a single run. Overall our results exhibit a clear improvement to find the optimal solution based on a quantum model versus simulations based on a classical field approximation.


Author(s):  
Michael Stumpf ◽  
Matthias Melchger ◽  
Severin Georg Montag ◽  
Georg Pretzler

Abstract We present an optical setup for well-defined ionization inside a plasma such that precisely controlled spots of high electron density can be generated. We propose to use the setup for Trojan Horse Injection (or Plasma Photocathode Emission) where a collinear laser beam is needed to release electrons inside a plasma wakefield. The reflection-based setup allows a suitable manipulation of the laser near field without disturbing the spectral phase of the laser pulses. A required ionization state and volume can be reached by tuning the beam size, pulse duration and pulse energy. The ionization simulations enable a prediction of the ionization spot and are in good agreement with dedicated experiments which measured the number of electrons created during the laser-gas interaction.


Author(s):  
Kosuke Fukui ◽  
Shuntaro Takeda

Abstract Realizing a large-scale quantum computer requires hardware platforms that can simultaneously achieve universality, scalability, and fault tolerance. As a viable pathway to meeting these requirements, quantum computation based on continuous-variable optical systems has recently gained more attention due to its unique advantages and approaches. This review introduces several topics of recent experimental and theoretical progress in the optical continuous-variable quantum computation that we believe are promising. In particular, we focus on scaling-up technologies enabled by time multiplexing, bandwidth broadening, and integrated optics, as well as hardware-efficient and robust bosonic quantum error correction schemes.


Author(s):  
Hansjochen Köckert ◽  
Jason Lee ◽  
Felix Allum ◽  
Kasra Amini ◽  
Sadia Bari ◽  
...  

Abstract The ultraviolet (UV)-induced dissociation and photofragmentation of gas-phase CH2BrI molecules induced by intense femtosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses at three different photon energies are studied by multi-mass ion imaging. Using a UV-pump — XUV-probe scheme, charge transfer between highly charged iodine ions and neutral CH2Br radicals produced by C—I bond cleavage is investigated. In earlier charge-transfer studies, the center of mass of the molecules was located along the axis of the bond cleaved by the pump pulse. In the present case of CH2BrI, this is not the case, thus inducing a rotation of the fragment. We discuss the influence of the rotation on the charge transfer process using a classical over-the-barrier model. Our modeling suggests that, despite the fact that the dissociation is slower due to the rotational excitation, the critical interatomic distance for charge transfer is reached faster. Furthermore, we suggest that charge transfer during molecular fragmentation may be modulated in a complex way.


Author(s):  
Hidetsugu Sakaguchi ◽  
Fumihide Hirano ◽  
Boris A Malomed

Abstract It is known that the interplay of the spin-orbit-coupling (SOC) and mean-field self-attraction creates stable two-dimensional (2D) solitons (ground states) in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates. However, SOC destroys the system's Galilean invariance, therefore moving solitons exist only in a narrow interval of velocities, outside of which the solitons suffer delocalization. We demonstrate that the application of a relatively weak moving optical lattice (OL), with the 2D or quasi-1D structure, makes it possible to greatly expand the velocity interval for stable motion of the solitons. The stability domain in the system's parameter space is identified by means of numerical methods. In particular, the quasi-1D OL produces a stronger stabilizing effect than its full 2D counterpart. Some features of the domain are explained analytically.


Author(s):  
Jose Antonio Antonio Medina Vazquez ◽  
Evelyn Yamel González Ramírez ◽  
Jose Guadalupe Murillo

Abstract In this work, we study a composite zinc oxide photonic crystal that includes a meso-cavity coupled to a photonic crystal L3 microcavity to obtain a double resonance effect and second-harmonic generation conversion efficiency as high as 468 W-1. This exceptional conversion efficiency was attributed to the high quality-factors Q found in the fundamental and second-harmonic modes whose values were of the order of 105 and 106, respectively. Since the L3 microcavity plays a relevant role in the second-harmonic generation of the composite photonic crystal, we performed a calculation of its photonic band structure to observe the induced modes in its bandgap. Furthermore, we also found that the resonant mode adjusted to the frequency of the second-harmonic exhibits high Purcell factors of the order of 105. Hence, in a semiconductor material, it can be easily enhanced the light emission at the second harmonic frequency using an adequate driving fundamental frequency light beam. These results can stimulate the engineering of photonic nanostructures in semiconductor materials to achieve highly efficient non-linear effects with applications in cavity Quantum Electrodynamics.


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