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2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
Reimbursement Team

CADTH reimbursement reviews are comprehensive assessments of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, as well as patient and clinician perspectives, of a drug or drug class. The assessments inform non-binding recommendations that help guide the reimbursement decisions of Canada's federal, provincial, and territorial governments, with the exception of Quebec. This review assesses azacitidine (Onureg), tablet 300 mg, oral. Indication: Maintenance therapy in adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia who achieved complete remission or complete remission with incomplete blood count recovery following induction therapy with or without consolidation treatment, and who are not eligible for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Martin Haywood

The full blood count (FBC) is one of the most commonly requested blood tests in medical practice and can provide a wealth of useful information about a patient’s general state of health, as well as highlighting abnormalities which indicate systemic or sinister pathologies. This article seeks to explore the different parameters of the FBC, and how these relate to some more common clinical presentations, as well as their relation to morphological findings seen on the blood film. As with most investigations, differential diagnoses suggested by any individual laboratory tests are wide and are most valuable when combined with history and examination.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 302
Marcus Wölffer ◽  
Florian Battke ◽  
Martin Schulze ◽  
Magdalena Feldhahn ◽  
Lukas Flatz ◽  

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have revolutionized the therapeutic landscape of metastatic melanoma. However, ICI are often associated with immune-related adverse events (IRAE) such as colitis, hepatitis, pancreatitis, hypophysitis, pneumonitis, thyroiditis, exanthema, nephritis, myositis, encephalitis, or myocarditis. Biomarkers associated with the occurrence of IRAE would be desirable. In the literature, there is only little data available and furthermore mostly speculative, especially in view of genetic alterations. Our major aim was to check for possible associations between NGS-based genetic alterations and IRAE. We therefore analyzed 95 melanoma patients with ICI and evaluated their NGS results. We checked the data in view of potential associations between copy number variations (CNVs), small variations (VARs), human leucocyte antigen (HLA), sex, blood count parameters, pre-existing autoimmune diseases and the occurrence of IRAE. We conducted a literature research on genetic alterations hypothesized to be associated with the occurrence of IRAE. In total, we identified 39 genes that have been discussed as hypothetical biomarkers. We compared the list of these 39 genes with the tumor panel that our patients had received and focused our study on those 16 genes that were also included in the tumor panel used for NGS. Therefore, we focused our analyses on the following genes: AIRE, TERT, SH2B3, LRRK2, IKZF1, SMAD3, JAK2, PRDM1, CTLA4, TSHR, FAN1, SLCO1B1, PDCD1, IL1RN, CD274, UNG. We obtained relevant results: female sex was significantly associated with the development of hepatitis, combined immunotherapy with colitis, increased total and relative monocytes at therapy initiation were significantly associated with the development of pancreatitis, the same, pre-existing autoimmune diseases. Further significant associations were as follows: HLA homozygosity (hepatitis), and VARs on SMAD3 (pancreatitis). Regarding CNVs, significant markers included PRDM1 deletions and IL1RN (IRAE), CD274 duplications and SLCO1B1 (hepatitis), PRDM1 and CD274 (encephalitis), and PRDM1, CD274, TSHR, and FAN1 (myositis). Myositis and encephalitis, both, were associated with alterations of PRDM1 and CD274, which might explain their joined appearance in clinical practice. The association between HLA homozygosity and IRAE was clarified by finding HLA-A homozygosity as determining factor. We identified several genetic alterations hypothesized in the literature to be associated with the development of IRAE and found significant results concerning pre-existing autoimmune diseases and specific blood count parameters. Our findings can help to better understand the development of IRAE in melanoma patients. NGS might be a useful screening tool, however, our findings have yet to be confirmed in larger studies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Gayani Shashikala Amarasinghe ◽  
Thilini Chanchala Agampodi ◽  
Vasana Mendis ◽  
Krishanthi Malawanage ◽  
Chamila Kappagoda ◽  

Abstract Background The Sustainable development goals, which focus strongly on equity, aim to end all forms of malnutrition by 2030. However, a significant cause of intergenerational transfer of malnutrition, anaemia in pregnancy, is still a challenge. It is especially so in the low- and middle-income settings where possible context-specific aetiologies leading to anaemia have been poorly explored. This study explores the prevalence of etiological factors significantly contributing to anaemia in pregnancy in Sri Lanka, a lower-middle-income country with a high prevalence of malnutrition albeit robust public health infrastructure. Methods All first-trimester pregnant women registered in the public maternal care programme in the Anuradhapura district from July to September 2019 were invited to participate in Rajarata Pregnancy Cohort (RaPCo). After a full blood count analysis, high-performance liquid chromatography, peripheral blood film examination, serum B12 and folate levels were performed in anaemic participants, guided by an algorithm based on the red cell indices in the full blood count. In addition, serum ferritin was tested in a random subsample of 213 participants. Anaemic women in this subsample underwent B12 and folate testing. Results Among 3127 participants, 14.4% (95%CI 13.2–15.7, n = 451) were anaemic. Haemoglobin ranged between 7.4 to 19.6 g/dl. 331(10.6%) had mild anaemia. Haemoglobin ≥13 g/dl was observed in 39(12.7%). Microcytic, normochromic-normocytic, hypochromic-normocytic and macrocytic anaemia was observed in 243(54%), 114(25.3%), 80(17.8%) and two (0.4%) of full blood counts in anaemic women, respectively. Microcytic anaemia with a red cell count ≥5 * 106 /μl demonstrated a 100% positive predictive value for minor haemoglobinopathies. Minor hemoglobinopathies were present in at least 23.3%(n = 105) of anaemic pregnant women. Prevalence of iron deficiency, B12 deficiency and Southeast Asian ovalocytosis among the anaemic was 41.9% (95%CI 26.4–59.2), 23.8% (95%CI 10.6–45.1) and 0.9% (95%CI 0.3–2.3%), respectively. Folate deficiency was not observed. Conclusion Even though iron deficiency remains the primary cause, minor hemoglobinopathies, B 12 deficiency and other aetiologies substantially contribute to anaemia in pregnancy in this study population. Public health interventions, including screening for minor hemoglobinopathies and multiple micronutrient supplementation in pregnancy, should be considered in the national programme for areas where these problems have been identified.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 60
Alessio Strazzulla ◽  
Sarra Abroug Ben Halima ◽  
Ibrahim Chouchane ◽  
Marwa Rezek ◽  
Marcella Pinto Stiebler ◽  

Introduction: Acute pulmonary embolism (aPE) is frequently associated with coronavirus infectious disease-2019 (COVID-19) with an incidence of more than 16%. Among the new promising biomarkers of aPE, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) showed correlations with aPE prognosis. The aim of this study was to conduct an exploratory analysis to check the possible role of cell blood count (CBC) parameters as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of aPE in COVID-19 patients. Materials and Methods: A case control study was conducted. Two populations were compared: (i) patients hospitalised from 31 January 2020 to 30 June 2021 with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and aPE confirmed at angio computed tomography (aCT) or pulmonary scintigraphy (COVID-19 aPE group); (ii) patients hospitalised from 31 January 2017 to 30 June 2021 without SARS-CoV-2 infection whose suspicion of aPE was excluded by aCT or pulmonary scintigraphy (no-aPE group). Results: Overall, 184 patients were included in the study, 83 in COVID-19 aPE group and 101 in no-aPE group. At the univariate analysis, COVID-19 patients with aPE had higher NLR, PLR, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts than patients without aPE (p < 0.05). No significant difference was found in mean platelet volume and platelet counts. No difference in mortality rate was detected. At the multivariate analysis, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were both associated with diagnostic of aPE while no CBC parameters were associated with mortality at day#7. Conclusions: Neutrophiland lymphocyte counts could be predictors of the early detection of aPE in COVID-19 patients. The value of CBC indices as biomarkers of aPE in daily clinical practice needs to be investigated in further studies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 111
Mehmet Cosgun ◽  
Yilmaz Gunes ◽  
Asli Mansiroglu ◽  
Isa Sincer ◽  
Gulali Aktas ◽  

Aneta Teległów ◽  
Valerjan Romanovski ◽  
Beata Skowron ◽  
Dawid Mucha ◽  
Łukasz Tota ◽  

Regular exposure to a cold factor—cold water swimming or ice swimming and cold air—results in an increased tolerance to cold due to numerous adaptive mechanisms in humans. Due to the lack of scientific reports on the effects of extremely low outdoor temperatures on the functioning of the human circulatory system, the aim of this study was to evaluate complete blood count and biochemical blood indices in multiple Guinness world record holder Valerjan Romanovski, who was exposed to extremely cold environment from −5 °C to −37 °C for 50 days in Rovaniemi (a city in northern Finland). Valerjan Romanovski proved that humans can function in extremely cold temperatures. Blood from the subject was collected before and after the expedition. The subject was found to have abnormalities for the following blood indices: testosterone increases by 60.14%, RBC decreases by 4.01%, HGB decreases by 3.47%, WBC decreases by 21.53%, neutrocytes decrease by 17.31%, PDW increases by 5.31%, AspAT increases by 52.81%, AlAT increase by 68.75%, CK increases by 8.61%, total cholesterol decreases by 5.88%, HDL increases by 28.18%. Percentage changes in other complete blood count and biochemical indices were within standard limits. Long-term exposure of the subject (50 days) to extreme cold stress had no noticeable negative effect on daily functioning.

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