attributable risk
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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Fengbo Xu ◽  
Guoqin Wang ◽  
Nan Ye ◽  
Weijing Bian ◽  
Lijiao Yang ◽  

Abstract Background Renal insufficiency (RI) is a frequent comorbidity among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We aimed to evaluate the attributable risk associated with mild RI for the in-hospital outcomes in patients with ACS. Methods The Improving Care for Cardiovascular Disease in China-ACS (CCC-ACS) Project was a collaborative study of the American Heart Association and the Chinese Society of Cardiology. A total of 92,509 inpatients with a discharge diagnosis of ACS were included. The attributable risk was calculated to investigate the effect of mild RI (eGFR 60-89 ml / min · 1.73 m2) on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) during hospitalization. Results The average age of these ACS patients was 63 years, and 73.9% were men. The proportion of patients with mild RI was 36.17%. After adjusting for other possible risk factors, mild RI was still an independent risk factor for MACEs in ACS patients. In the ACS patients, the attributable risk of eGFR 60-89ml/min·1.73m2 to MACEs was 7.78%, 4.69% of eGFR 45-59 ml/min·1.73m2, 4.46% of eGFR 30-44 ml/min·1.73m2, and 3.36% of eGFR<30 ml/min·1.73m2. Conclusion Compared with moderate to severe RI, mild RI has higher attributable risk to MACEs during hospitalization in Chinese ACS population.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Yiyi Yao ◽  
Xiangjie Lin ◽  
Fenglin Li ◽  
Jie Jin ◽  
Huafeng Wang

Abstract Background Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent subtype of leukemia in Western countries, causing a substantial health burden on patients and society. Comprehensive evaluation of the epidemiological characteristics of CLL is warranted, especially in the current context of global population aging. The main objective of this study is evaluating the disease burden of CLL at global, regional, and national levels from 1990 to 2019. As secondary objectives, we studied the influence of demographic factors and performed risk factor analysis. We hope this study could provide evidence for the evaluation of the effectiveness of previous prevention strategies and the formulation of future global health policies. Results Based on data of CLL between 1990 to 2019 from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study 2019, we depicted the age, gender, and regional structure of the CLL burden population and described the impact of social development on the disease burden of CLL. The distribution and changing trends of attributable risk factors were also investigated. The global burden of CLL has increased dramatically. A high incidence has been achieved in males and elder people. Countries and territories with high social-demographic index (SDI) tended to have higher global burden than low-SDI region. Of risk factors, high body mass index and smoking were the major contributors for CLL-related mortality and disability adjusted life-years (DALYs). Conclusion In summary, the global CLL burden continues to rise over the past 30 years. The relocation of medical resource should be considered on a global scale. Graphical Abstract

Kershaw V. Patel ◽  
Matthew W. Segar ◽  
Carl J. Lavie ◽  
Nitin Kondamudi ◽  
Ian J. Neeland ◽  

Background: Obesity and diabetes are associated with a higher risk of heart failure (HF). The inter-relationships between different measures of adiposity—overall obesity, central obesity, fat mass (FM)—and diabetes status for HF risk are not well-established. Methods: Participant-level data from ARIC(visit-5) and CHS(visit-1) cohorts were obtained from the NHLBI BioLINCC, harmonized, and pooled for the present analysis, excluding individuals with prevalent HF. FM was estimated in all participants using established anthropometric prediction equations additionally validated using the bioelectrical impedance-based FM in the ARIC subgroup. Incident HF events on follow-up were captured across both cohorts using similar adjudication methods. Multivariable-adjusted Fine-Gray models were created to evaluate the associations of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and FM with risk of HF in the overall cohort as well as among those with vs. without diabetes at baseline. The population attributable risk of overall obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m 2 ), abdominal obesity (WC>88 and 102 cm in women and men, respectively), and high FM (above sex-specific median) for incident HF was evaluated among participants with and without diabetes. Results: The study included 10,387 participants (52.9% ARIC; 25.1% diabetes; median age: 74 years). The correlation between predicted and bioelectrical impedance-based FM was high (R 2 =0.90; n=5,038). Over a 5-year follow-up, 447 participants developed HF (4.3%). Higher levels of each adiposity measure were significantly associated with higher HF risk (HR [95% CI] per 1-SD higher BMI=1.19[1.09-1.31], WC=1.27[1.14-1.41]; FM=1.17[1.06-1.29]). A significant interaction was noted between diabetes status and measures of BMI (p-interaction=0.04) and WC (p-interaction=0.004) for the risk of HF. In stratified analysis, higher measures of each adiposity parameter were significantly associated with higher HF risk in individuals with diabetes (HR[95% CI] per 1-SD higher BMI=1.29[1.14-1.47], WC=1.48[1.29-1.70]; FM=1.25[1.09-1.43]) but not those without diabetes, including participants with prediabetes and euglycemia. The population attributable risk percentage of overall obesity, abdominal obesity, and high FM for incident HF was higher among participants with diabetes (12.8%, 29.9%, 13.7%, respectively) vs. those without diabetes (≤1% for each). Conclusions: Higher BMI, WC, and FM are strongly associated with greater risk of HF among older adults, particularly among those with prevalent diabetes.

Obesity Facts ◽  
2021 ◽  
Huijing He ◽  
Li Pan ◽  
Xiaolan Ren ◽  
Dingming Wang ◽  
Jianwei Du ◽  

Introduction: The prevalence of hyperuricemia is increasing world widely; the understanding of population attributable faction of modifiable risk factors is important for disease prevention. Given the sparse evidence on how modifiable risk factors influence hyperuricemia in mainland China, we aim to explore the effect of excess weight and alcohol consumption and the population attributable fractions of hyperuricemia based on a national survey in mainland China. Methods: Using data from China National Health Survey which included 31746 Han Chinese aged 20-80 from ten provinces, we estimated the prevalence and modifiable risk factors (overweight/obesity and alcohol consumption)of hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia was defined as serum uric acid > 417 μmol/L in men and > 340 μmol/L in women. Restricted cubic spline models were used to demonstrate the linear and non-linear association between exposures and hyperuricemia. The adjusted population attributable risk (PAR) was calculated to understand the relative importance of each modifiable risk factor. Results: The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 25.1% in men and 15.9% in women. The population fraction of hyperuricemia cases that could be avoided by weight loss was 20.6% (19.2% to 22.0%) in men and 18.1% (17.1% to 19.0%) in women. The PAR of alcohol consumption was 12.8% (8.5% to 17.1%) in men. Participants from southwest China had the highest hyperuricemia prevalence (47.9% in men and 29.9% in women), but with lower PAR of modifiable risk factors, especially in men (16.7%). Subjects in North China had lower hyperuricemia prevalence but higher PAR of modifiable risk factors. 44.8% male hyperuricemia cases in Inner Mongolia (26.9% of hyperuricemia prevalence) and 37.7% cases in men from Heilongjiang (34.4% of hyperuricemia prevalence) were attributable to overweight/obesity and alcohol consumption. Conclusion: There are significant sex and geographic difference on population attributable risk of hyperuricemia due to modifiable risk factors. More tailored prevention strategies are needed to prevent hyperuricemia through weight loss and the reduction of alcohol consumption.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Hao Zi ◽  
Shao-Hua He ◽  
Xie-Yuan Leng ◽  
Xiao-Feng Xu ◽  
Qiao Huang ◽  

Abstract Background The burden of kidney, bladder, and prostate cancers has changed in recent decades. This study aims to investigate the global and regional burden of, and attributable risk factors for genitourinary cancers during the past 30 years. Methods We extracted data of kidney, bladder, and prostate cancers from the Global Burden of Disease 2019 database, including incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and attributable risk factors from 1990 to 2019. Estimated annual percentage changes (EAPC) were calculated to assess the changes in age-standardized incidence rate, age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR), and age-standardized DALYs rate (ASDR). The associations between cancers burden and socio-demographic index (SDI) were also analyzed. Results Compared with 1990, the global incident cases in 2019 were higher by 154.78%, 123.34%, and 169.11% for kidney, bladder, and prostate cancers, respectively. During the 30-year study period, there was a downward trend in ASMR and ASDR for bladder cancer (EAPC = − 0.68 and − 0.83, respectively) and prostate cancer (EAPC = − 0.75 and − 0.71, respectively), but an upward trend for kidney cancer (EAPC = 0.35 and 0.12, respectively). Regions and countries with higher SDI had higher incidence, mortality, and DALYs for all three types of cancers. The burden of bladder and prostate cancers was mainly distributed among older men, whereas the burden of kidney cancer increased among middle-aged men. Smoking related mortality and DALYs decreased, but high body mass index (BMI) and high fasting plasma glucose (FPG) related mortality and DALYs increased among kidney, bladder, and prostate cancers during the study period. Conclusions Kidney, bladder, and prostate cancers remain major global public health challenges, but with distinct trend for different disease entity across different regions and socioeconomic status. More proactive intervention strategies, at both the administrative and academic levels, based on the dynamic changes, are needed.

Stroke ◽  
2021 ◽  
Elizabeth M. Aradine ◽  
Kathleen A. Ryan ◽  
Carolyn A. Cronin ◽  
Marcella A. Wozniak ◽  
John W. Cole ◽  

Background and Purpose: Although the US Black population has a higher incidence of stroke compared with the US White population, few studies have addressed Black-White differences in the contribution of vascular risk factors to the population burden of ischemic stroke in young adults. Methods: A population-based case-control study of early-onset ischemic stroke, ages 15 to 49 years, was conducted in the Baltimore-Washington DC region between 1992 and 2007. Risk factor data was obtained by in-person interview in both cases and controls. The prevalence, odds ratio, and population-attributable risk percent (PAR%) of smoking, diabetes, and hypertension was determined among Black patients and White patients, stratified by sex. Results: The study included 1044 cases and 1099 controls. Of the cases, 47% were Black patients, 54% were men, and the mean (±SD) age was 41.0 (±6.8) years. For smoking, the population-attributable risk percent were White men 19.7%, White women 32.5%, Black men 10.1%, and Black women 23.8%. For diabetes, the population-attributable risk percent were White men 10.5%, White women 7.4%, Black men 17.2%, and Black women 13.4%. For hypertension, the population-attributable risk percent were White men 17.2%, White women 19.3%, Black men 45.8%, and Black women 26.4%. Conclusions: Modifiable vascular risk factors account for a large proportion of ischemic stroke in young adults. Cigarette smoking was the strongest contributor to stroke among White patients while hypertension was the strongest contributor to stroke among Black patients. These results support early primary prevention efforts focused on smoking cessation and hypertension detection and treatment.

2021 ◽  
pp. 108705472110572
Arthur D. P. Mak ◽  
Sue Lee ◽  
Nancy A. Sampson ◽  
Yesica Albor ◽  
Jordi Alonso ◽  

Objective To examine the prevalence of ADHD and the association of comorbid disorders, and multivariate disorder classes with role impairment in college students. Method About 15,991 freshmen (24 colleges, 9 countries, WMH-ICS) (response rate = 45.6%) completed online WMH-CIDI-SC surveys for 6-month ADHD and six 12-month DSM-IV disorders. We examined multivariate disorder classes using latent class analysis (LCA) and simulated a population attributable risk proportions (PARPs) of ADHD-related impairment. Results About 15.9% had ADHD, of which 58.4% had comorbidities. LCA classified ADHD respondents to pure (42.9%), internalizing (36.0%), bipolar comorbidities (11.3%), and externalizing disorder classes (9.8%). ADHD, comorbidities, and multivariate disorder classes independently predicted severe impairment. PARPs: eliminating ADHD hypothetically reduced severe impairment by 19.2%, 10.1% adjusted for comorbidities, 9.5% for multivariate disorder classes. Conclusions ADHD and comorbid disorders are common and impairing in college students. Personalized transdiagnostic interventions guided by multivariate disorder classes should be explored.

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