Tenecteplase is a thrombolytic that is more fibrin specific, has a longer half-life, and is easier to administer than alteplase for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). This article outlines the pharmacy experience and perspective on implementation of tenecteplase as the treatment of choice for AIS.
Tenecteplase has been of increasing interest for AIS and is currently being studied in several clinical trials. Although it is not indicated by the Food and Drug Administration for AIS, several published studies and an update to stroke guidelines from the American Heart Association and American Stroke Association support its use in this setting. In January 2021, Cedars-Sinai Health System made the decision to add tenecteplase to the formulary for AIS in addition to keeping alteplase for patients who met the criterion of being outside the 4.5-hour window following stroke onset. Along with the added benefits of having tenecteplase on formulary come challenges of managing multiple thrombolytics for the same indication. Identifying key stakeholders and creating an interdisciplinary team are critical to ensure safe transitions.
Institutions can safely transition from alteplase to tenecteplase as a thrombolytic of choice for AIS.
Renal insufficiency (RI) is a frequent comorbidity among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We aimed to evaluate the attributable risk associated with mild RI for the in-hospital outcomes in patients with ACS.
The Improving Care for Cardiovascular Disease in China-ACS (CCC-ACS) Project was a collaborative study of the American Heart Association and the Chinese Society of Cardiology. A total of 92,509 inpatients with a discharge diagnosis of ACS were included. The attributable risk was calculated to investigate the effect of mild RI (eGFR 60-89 ml / min · 1.73 m2) on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) during hospitalization.
The average age of these ACS patients was 63 years, and 73.9% were men. The proportion of patients with mild RI was 36.17%. After adjusting for other possible risk factors, mild RI was still an independent risk factor for MACEs in ACS patients. In the ACS patients, the attributable risk of eGFR 60-89ml/min·1.73m2 to MACEs was 7.78%, 4.69% of eGFR 45-59 ml/min·1.73m2, 4.46% of eGFR 30-44 ml/min·1.73m2, and 3.36% of eGFR<30 ml/min·1.73m2.
Compared with moderate to severe RI, mild RI has higher attributable risk to MACEs during hospitalization in Chinese ACS population.
Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in patients with diabetes. Cardiovascular disease in diabetes is multifactorial, and control of the cardiovascular risk factors leads to substantial reductions in cardiovascular events. The 2015 American Heart Association and American Diabetes Association scientific statement, “Update on Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Light of Recent Evidence,” highlighted the importance of modifying various risk factors responsible for cardiovascular disease in diabetes. At the time, there was limited evidence to suggest that glucose-lowering medications reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. At present, several large randomized controlled trials with newer antihyperglycemic agents have been completed, demonstrating cardiovascular safety and reduction in cardiovascular outcomes, including cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure. This AHA scientific statement update focuses on (1) the evidence and clinical utility of newer antihyperglycemic agents in improving glycemic control and reducing cardiovascular events in diabetes; (2) the impact of blood pressure control on cardiovascular events in diabetes; and (3) the role of newer lipid-lowering therapies in comprehensive cardiovascular risk management in adults with diabetes. This scientific statement addresses the continued importance of lifestyle interventions, pharmacological therapy, and surgical interventions to curb the epidemic of obesity and metabolic syndrome, important precursors of prediabetes, diabetes, and comorbid cardiovascular disease. Last, this scientific statement explores the critical importance of the social determinants of health and health equity in the continuum of care in diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
Patients both male and female with diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) present with chest pain as presenting complaint. Lichtman JH et al. in his study with ACS showed that 93% of women presented with chest pain or discomfort.1 As compared to men women experience more associated symptoms as primary complaint. The associated symptoms are fatigue, dyspnea, backache, flue like symptoms, indigestion, palpitations and most common is anxiety & feeling scarry.2 Keeping these scenarios in mind one should inquire this associated presentation along with chest pain or discomfort in evaluating ACS in women.
In continuation with symptoms there is quite a debate on pathophysiology of Acute Myocardial infraction in men and women regarding coronary pathologic features.3 Type 1 plaque rupture most common in both genders with plaque erosion most common in women in non-obstructive coronary artery disease.4 Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) having high mortality exists in the absence of risk factor of ACS.5
It was found in women up to 35% of patients with mean age of 42 to 53 years with a MACE (Major acute coronary event) of 47.4% and 10 years mortality rate of 7.7%2 SCAD seen in peripartum cases, oral contraception use, lack of exercise, connective tissue disorders and vasculidites. It is important for the physician to have in mind these disorders to avoid complications of coronary interventions.
In a scientific statement from AHA, Mehte LS et al. showed a lower prevalence of atheroscrotic CAD in women.3 These are certain scoring system,6 that under present women because of vague symptoms and presentation. These scoring systems lead to decrease hospital admission and less noninvasive cardiac testing. For risk satisfaction of chest pain female gender should not be taken as sole criteria for presence or absence of coronary events in presence of other multiple factors.
The last but not the least is the psychosocial stress more in women than in men. It has been found that young women who present with early onset myocardial infarction have more psychosocial risk factors in comparison to men of similar age,3 probably having high rates of poverty and trauma exposure during childhood because of various reasons.7 Different studies are endorsing relationship between depression and ischemic heart disease as prognostic factor after ACS.7 In our population where there is lack of education, poverty, awareness of disease especially in women the physician should ponder on different factors mentioned above i.e. presentation perceptions, prevalence, pathophysiology and psychosocial stress for evaluation and management of chest pain.
Lichtman JH, Leifheit-Limson EC, Watanabe E, Allen NB, Garavalia B, Garavalia LS, et al. Symptom recognition and healthcare experiences of young women with acute myocardial infarction. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2015;8:S31-8.
Vargas K, Messman A, Levy PD. Nuances in Evaluation of Chest Pain in women. JACC Case Rep. 2021;3(17):1793-7.
Mehta LS, Beckie TM, DeVon HA, Grines CL, Krumholz HM, Johnson MN, et al. Acute myocardial infarction in women: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2016;133:916-47.
Mukherjee D. Myocardial infarction with nonobstructive coronary arteries: a call for individualized treatment. J Am Heart 2019;8(14):e013361.
Hayes SN, Kim ESH, Saw J, Adlam D, Arslanian-Engoren C, Economy KE, et al. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection: current state of the science: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2018;137:e523-e557.
Preciado SM, Sharp AL, Sun BC, Baecker A, Wu YL, Lee MS, et al. Evaluating sex disparities in the emergency department management of patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Ann Emerg 2021;77(4):416-24.
Lichtman JH, Froelicher ES, Blumenthal JA, Carney RM, Doering LV, Frasure-Smith N, et al. Depression as a risk factor for poor prognosis among patients with acute coronary syndrome: systematic review and recommendations: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2014;129:1350-69.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, diabetes prevention represents a critical need for the health education curriculum, given the rise of the disease and its precondition for today’s youth. An active understanding of diabetes encourages young people to take control of the nutritional and exercise factors that keep the disease in check. When teachers use experiential activities, or “adventure” education, students perform tasks that illustrate conceptual content and reinforce learning. Research has found that current modalities to be successful but lacking the physicality to meet the recommendations of the American Heart Association and the Society of Health and Physical Educators. Games such as Toll Road Boogie; Tom and Jerry, or Insulin and Sugar; Wacky Receptor; and Tusker Monster, or Fat Cell Tag help children meet the 60 min of physical activity that are required most days of the week. This article offers several examples of how to design and implement games and incentives into lessons that are both enjoyable and illustrative of diabetes prevention-based education for ages 8 to 18.