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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Fengbo Xu ◽  
Guoqin Wang ◽  
Nan Ye ◽  
Weijing Bian ◽  
Lijiao Yang ◽  

Abstract Background Renal insufficiency (RI) is a frequent comorbidity among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We aimed to evaluate the attributable risk associated with mild RI for the in-hospital outcomes in patients with ACS. Methods The Improving Care for Cardiovascular Disease in China-ACS (CCC-ACS) Project was a collaborative study of the American Heart Association and the Chinese Society of Cardiology. A total of 92,509 inpatients with a discharge diagnosis of ACS were included. The attributable risk was calculated to investigate the effect of mild RI (eGFR 60-89 ml / min · 1.73 m2) on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) during hospitalization. Results The average age of these ACS patients was 63 years, and 73.9% were men. The proportion of patients with mild RI was 36.17%. After adjusting for other possible risk factors, mild RI was still an independent risk factor for MACEs in ACS patients. In the ACS patients, the attributable risk of eGFR 60-89ml/min·1.73m2 to MACEs was 7.78%, 4.69% of eGFR 45-59 ml/min·1.73m2, 4.46% of eGFR 30-44 ml/min·1.73m2, and 3.36% of eGFR<30 ml/min·1.73m2. Conclusion Compared with moderate to severe RI, mild RI has higher attributable risk to MACEs during hospitalization in Chinese ACS population.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Xueji Liang ◽  
Lu Dai ◽  
Sujuan Xie

Purpose Corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting is a widely accepted procedure for firms to disclose their performance in multiple domains, including environmental protection, labour welfare, protection of human rights, community services, contribution to society and pursuit of product safety. This study aims to investigate whether and how board interlocks affect firms’ decisions with respect to CSR reporting. This study argues that board interlocks act as an important source of social pressure and firms are influenced by their peer firms to adopt CSR reporting. Design/methodology/approach This paper sampled listed companies on China’s Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges from 2009 to 2015. The data were collected from Runling database and China Stock Market and Accounting Research database. A multi-period logit model was used to conduct the main regression analysis and the propensity score matching method was used in the robustness checks. Findings A study based on a sample of Chinese publicly listed firms from 2009 to 2015 confirms the argument and shows that sharing a common director on the board with a previous CSR reporter facilitates the firm’s engagement in CSR reporting. Furthermore, this study shows that the influence of board interlocks on CSR reporting depends on the following three characteristics: status of the interlocking director, size of the linked CSR reporter and performance implications of previous CSR activities. Research limitations/implications The interpretation of the current findings should be considered in light of these limitations. First, while board interlocks are an important social aspect of institutional pressure, other types of social pressure exist. Second, the focus is on CSR reporting decisions. However, CSR reporting can also be symbolic, with little substantive quality to improve CSR-related activities. Third, this study argues that both regulatory and social pressures influence the decision to report on CSR. However, this study was unable to determine the weight of each pressure. Future research should follow this direction. Finally, the influence of certain behaviours through interlocks is stronger in the initial stage of the institutionalisation process. Practical implications The findings of this study have important implications for practitioners. First, the messaging role of interlocking directors suggests that director selection should consider the effectiveness of information transfer. Knowing and analysing specific interlock and its links with the firm’s strategy is very important. Meanwhile, firms should be vigilant that the balance between the access to information and loss of autonomy because searching for information related to firms’ strategic decisions might challenge current strategy. Second, the results of the study suggest that to effectively urge companies to engage in CSR reporting, government and policy makers should consider beyond institutional pressure, but also be sensitive to the social pressure exerted upon the companies. Social implications The positive role of board interlocks on corporate voluntary CSR reporting can not only make valuable contributions to the Chinese society but also, as an important participant of global economy and trade, the Chinese interlocking directors’ contribution to CSR reporting have global benefits. Originality/value This study extends the institutional perspective on CSR reporting by uncovering the effect of social pressure. It advances the literature on the antecedents of CSR reporting by linking board interlocks to CSR reporting. Finally, the study enriches the broader interlock literature by delineating three specific characteristics of interlocks that influence CSR reporting.

2022 ◽  
pp. 152747642110612
Chun Gan

Traditionally perceived as a country of emigration, China has in recent years become an increasingly popular subject for immigration and diaspora studies, with an immigrant population that has been growing quietly and steadily since the 1990s. However, media representations of immigrants in China have not garnered much attention. This article provides a critical assessment of how immigrants and immigrant experience are portrayed on Chinese television, using the example of Foreigner in China (2013–19), the first-ever program on a national platform to tackle this topic. It argues that, while the program paints a rather insightful and entertaining picture of contemporary immigrant life in China, its representation of immigrants is restricted by not only the internal contradiction of the Xi administration’s globalist discourse, but also the exclusive, ethnocentric conception of Chinese nationhood, which remains the norm in a more heterogenous and globally conscious Chinese society.

Yi Wang ◽  

With repaid development of science and technology, various high-tech transportation has come into Chinese society. Moreover, with the further development of sharing economy in China, all kinds of shared transportation have gradually come into our society. In Beijing, it is nothing extraordinary to see shared bicycles stop at the roadside. However, with the popularity of shred transportation, many social problems have also aroused people’s thinking. In this essay, we will be based on the contemporary science and technology develop situation to discuss how will the shared transportation be like and how will the shared transportation interact with people.

Yong-Kang Wei

The essay explores the notion of collective ethos by looking closely at some of the key aspects of rhetorical and discourse practices in early Chinese society, such as ethos-as-spirit, the oneness of ethos/logos, and wei-yi (威仪; authority and deportment) among others, with a conclusion about the ethocentric nature of the traditional Chinese discourse system, rhetoric and philosophy included. To put things in perspective, it also discusses Western theories on ethos, including those by noted postmodernist theorists such as Bourdieu and Foucault. However, it does not argue that the Chinese tradition is the right path to rhetoric in general and ethos in particular but, rather, points out that rhetoric varies across cultures for an array of reasons, hence the necessity of approaching and understanding ethos differently from the model formulated by Aristotle.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 ◽  
pp. 305-307
Ziyang Wang

At present, Chinese society is in the stage of a decisive victory in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. By 2020, all the existing impoverished counties and people in China will exit the ranks of poverty. As China enters the Post-poverty era, the issue of rural governance will become the key to a sustainable poverty alleviation in rural areas. As a new type of social organization, Xiangxian councils play an important role in rural governance. This research studied the existing problems of the Xiangxian Council in rural governance to promote Xiangxian’s participation and practice in rural governance.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 ◽  
pp. 46-55
Rui Zhao

As the global economy moves towards the direction of gender equality, feminist movements have also become more predominant worldwide, including in Chinese society. The purpose of this research is to explore perceptions and opinions about feminism and women empowerment on feminism-related articles posted on Chinese media sites. This qualitative study looks into four articles on feminism-related topics and developed a codebook to analyze the comments of each of the four articles. The findings show that anti-feminists expressed beliefs that women are not a vulnerable group and that women receive more tolerance, assistance, and care in society. Also, according to the analysis of data, anti-feminists show the tendency of overgeneralizing feminism while pro-feminism comments present clarification or de-stigmatization for feminism. However, overall 49.5% of comments were positive, suggesting an overall positive view of feminist issues.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (20) ◽  
pp. 2
V. A. Lyzohub

The article is devoted to a comprehensive analysis of the main sources, works that developed and supplemented the main elements of Confucian doctrine that appeared during the lifetime of Confucius. The main data on the life and work of thinkers who developed and supplemented the teachings of the Great Teacher of antiquity, the main options for translating and interpreting the names of treatises and basic terminology are outlined. It outlines the main provisions and ideas of the treatise "Zhong Yun" written by Confucius 'direct students, which is of fundamental importance for the process of historical evolution of Confucian doctrine, and clarifies, details and deepens the theses of Confucius' main book "Lun Yu". Against the background of the basic traditional Chinese picture, one of the key principles of Confucianism is pointed out – the principle of the "golden mean", the critical importance of personal virtue of rulers, and the main approaches to determining the formula of human nature. It is determined that the subject of interest "Zhong Yun", broader than the basic treatise "Lun Yu" and denotes cosmogonic and moral properties of the spirit, more richly interprets the inner content of the fundamental category of humanity ("Ren") constructs an integral system of categories, the sources of which are in the depths of ancient Chinese mythology. The main concepts and meanings of the work "Da Xue" ("great teaching") are established, one of the most fundamental traditional categories of which is the concept of "where" – personal "grace", "achievement, acquisition", and the uniqueness and special place of a person in the universe is the ability to follow "due justice". The quintessence of the DA Xue worldview system is the presumption of immanent virtue of human nature, which should radiate from those in power in the form of "humanity"; the basic thesis of the treatise is the attitude according to which the ruler who "does not show" virtue is deprived of his right to rule. It is stated that the work named after the outstanding thinker of traditional China, Meng Tzu, was of fundamental importance for the long evolution of Confucianism. (Meng Ke), who not only expanded the leading principles of Confucius, but also improved the teachings of the great teacher by actualizing and considering new issues. This approach transformed the teachings of Kun Tzu into a harmonious construction of judgments, which later turned into the official government ideology and worldview system of the Great Chinese society, which has existed for thousands of years. It is to Meng Tzu that the orientation to consider human nature moral goes back, one of his most original ideas is the concept of the heart-mind, which is provided on the one hand by an innate, intuitive ability, moral instinct, and on the other by benevolence. On the contrary, the approaches of another thinker, Sun Tzu, were completely antagonistic to Meng Tzu's ideas and proved the conclusion that human nature is evil. Sun Tzu's concept is located exactly on the border between Confucianism and legalism, but the Thinker (unlike the legists) believed that it was not punishments and rewards that should curb the evil nature of a person, but moral improvement and high literature, that is, culture. Sun Tzu was the first in Confucianism and proved the concept of an enlightened monarchy based on the principle of both traditional morality and the authority and power of the law. Against the background of the study of significant monographic literature, conclusions are drawn about the almost instantaneous beginning of the complex deepening, improvement and development of teaching, already by the first students of Confucius. Confucianism was formed as a method of interpreting the ancient Chinese system of symbols and concepts, categories laid down in mythological form in an active, active spirit. The development of Confucian doctrine was due to the incorporation of elements of other teachings. Confucianism essentially developed through finding common ground with other Chinese doctrines.  The key idea that emerged in the development of Confucianism is the statement that everything in a person, including his inner world, is just a reflection of the natural world, and the restoration of perfect social institutions will not mechanically restore perfect order in the Middle Kingdom. The core of the DA Xue ideological system is the assumption of the inner virtue (de) of human nature, which must be shown by those in power. In the course of its long evolution, Confucian traditional thought put certain fundamental problems and categories on the agenda much earlier than European thinkers did, of course, at the ancient, traditional level synchronous with that distant century  

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Xiao Wang ◽  
Guanqi Zhao ◽  
Mengge Zhou ◽  
Changsheng Ma ◽  
Junbo Ge ◽  

Objective: Major bleeding is a common complication following treatment for an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and is associated with increased mortality. We aimed to explore the temporal trend of bleeding events in relation to changes of therapeutic strategies among patients hospitalized for ACS in China.Methods: The CCC-ACS project (Improving Care for Cardiovascular Disease in China–Acute Coronary Syndrome) is a collaborative initiative of the American Heart Association and the Chinese Society of Cardiology. We analyzed 113,567 ACS patients from 241 hospitals in China from 2015 to 2019. Major bleeding was defined as intracranial bleeding, retroperitoneal bleeding, a decline in hemoglobin levels ≥3 g/dL, transfusion with overt bleeding, bleeding requiring surgical intervention, and fatal bleeding. Kruskal–Wallis test was used to examine the trend of major bleeding over time.Results: The rate of in-hospital major bleeding decreased from 6.3% in 2015 to 4.7% in 2019 (unadjusted OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.68–0.80, and P &lt; 0.001). The relative changes were consistent across almost all subgroups including patients with NSTE-ACS and STEMI, although the trend was more pronounced in NSTE-ACS patients. The decrease in bleeding was accompanied by a decrease in use of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors and parenteral anticoagulation therapy during hospitalization. The annual reduced risk of bleeding (OR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.89–0.93) was attenuated after stepwise adjusting for baseline characteristics and antithrombotic treatments (OR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.93–0.97), but did not change after adjusting for invasive treatment (OR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.93–0.97).Conclusions: There was a temporal reduction in in-hospital bleeding among Chinese ACS patients during the last 5 years, which was associated with more evidence-based use of antithrombotic therapies.Clinical Trial Registration:, identifier: NCT02306616.

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