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2022 ◽  
pp. 29-31
Константин Борисович Плотников ◽  
Игорь Борисович Плотников ◽  
Денис Викторович Доня ◽  
Павел Петрович Иванов ◽  
Ирина Олеговна Плотникова

В условиях высокой занятости населения возникает необходимость развития более сбалансированного питания. Одним из таких продуктов могут выступать инстантированные напитки на основе плодово-ягодного сырья. Подавляющее большинство таких продуктов на рынке представлено в виде многокомпонентного гранулятора с заданными показателями качества. При производстве таких продуктов используются грануляторы различного типа, однако для малых производств, которые могут быстро переориентироваться на выпуск новой продукции, более перспективными являются грануляторы периодического действия, например, роторные смесители-грануляторы. Однако при анализе получаемого дисперсного состава было выявлено, что продукт имеет нестабильный гранулометрический состав. В работе исследовались дисперсный состав и прочность гранулированного продукта, полученного в роторном смесителе-грануляторе. В результате литературно-патентного обзора была предложена модернизация известного гранулятора и определен дисперсный состав получаемых гранул. В результате проведенных исследований было выявлено, что гранулометрический состав готовой продукции стал более стабилен по сравнению с прототипом оборудования. При анализе прочности получаемых гранул не было выявлено существенного изменения, однако была выявлена зависимость прочности на раздавливание от частоты вращения рабочих органов, так при увеличении частоты вращения лопасти выше 2000 мин-1 наблюдался рост прочности гранул. Также при увеличении частоты вращения происходит рост мелкодисперсной фракции в готовой продукции. Обработка полученных результатов исследований позволила получить экспериментально статистическую модель зависимости среднемедианного размера получаемых гранул от режимных параметров и свойств связующего раствора. In conditions of high employment of the population, it becomes necessary to develop more balanced nutrition. One of the types of such foods can be instantized drinks based on fruit and berry raw materials. An overwhelming majority of these foods on the market are presented in the form of a multicomponent granules with specified quality indicators. When manufacturing such foods granulators of different types are used, however, for minor productions that can be quickly reorientated to the release of new foodstuffs, periodical activity granulators are more promising, for example, rotary mixers-granulators. However, when analyzing the resulting dispersed composition, it was revealed that the foodstuff has an unstable particle size distribution. The work investigated the dispersed composition and strength of the granular staff obtained in a rotary mixer-granulator. As a result of the literature and patent review, the modernization of the well-known granulator was proposed and the dispersed composition of the resulting granules was determined. As a result of the research carried out, it was revealed that the granulometric composition of the finished staff became stabler in comparison with the prototype of the equipment. When analyzing the strength of the granules obtained, no significant change was revealed, however, the dependence of the crushing strength of the working bodies’ rotational speed was revealed, so, with an increase in the blade’s rotational speed over 2000 RPM, an increase in the strength of the granules was observed. Also, with an increase in the rotational speed, an increase in the fine fraction in the product finished occurs. The processing of the research results obtained made it possible to obtain an experimental statistical model of the dependence of the average median size of the granules obtained on the operating parameters and the properties of the binder solution.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (4) ◽  
pp. 337-345
A. T. Rybak ◽  
A. V. Ivanovskaya ◽  
P. P. Batura ◽  
A. Yu. Pelipenko

Introduction. The paper submits the analysis of existing design solutions of flow dividers used to synchronize hydraulic drives of working bodies of technological and mobile machines. The market demands for multithreaded throttle flow dividers without valves with the controlled division ratio, such as multi-axle vehicle chassis, are identified. The objective of the work was to analyze the possibility and rationale for developing a throttle four-way flow divider without valves with sensing elements of the Venturi tube type. The solution should provide the synchronicity of movement (rotation) of more than three working bodies of technological and mobile machines.Materials and Methods. A patent search for the designs of hydraulic flow dividers is carried out, and systems that require the division of the hydraulic fluid flow into more than two executive bodies are considered. An upgrade option, which allows dividing the flow into four branches, is proposed for the design of a three-channel throttle flow divider without valves.Results. The urgency of developing a multithreaded throttle flow divider without valves for application in industrial and mobile machines is validated. Two types of four-flow dividers are considered, their weaknesses are indicated. It is noted that the development of a multithreaded throttle flow divider based on the designs created in 1989 and 1991 will reduce the number of hydraulic pumps and get rid of the series connection of double-flow dividers. In this way, it is possible to reduce pressure losses in the hydraulic system and implement adaptive control of hydraulic motors of multi-motor mobile machines. The possibility to obtain a divider/combiner into four flows by adding an outlet chamber connected to the membrane chamber through a channel entering the Venturi nozzle on the basis of a three-flow throttle divider is shown. The principle of operation of such equipment is described.Discussion and Conclusions. The principles of construction of throttle flow dividers without valves are considered. An upgrade option is proposed to increase the number of division channels from three to four. However, to validate the operability of this design, a numerical analysis of the various modes of operation of the divider is required — calculation of the reduced volumetric stiffness of its working cavities. The information obtained can be used to modernize the hydraulic units of technological and mobile machines, increase their reliability, manufacturability, and efficiency. The issues that need to be solved in further research are identified.

2022 ◽  
pp. 2051-2064
Yuri Vinogradov ◽  
Dmitry Strebkov

The article is a presentation of the results of studies and calculations of climate parameters associated with anthropogenic thermal pollution of the environment. They indicate that the increase of atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide cannot be a cause of climate warming. The article provides information about the working principle of the natural mechanism of automatic maintenance of temperature climate parameters. The authors show that all of the gases molar mass of differs from the molar mass of nitrogen are the working bodies of the procedures for moving heat from the stratosphere to space. Water vapor is the only greenhouse gas, and to deal effectively with water vapor in the atmosphere is impossible. However, the work contains an assessment of the feasibility of some ways to assist the natural mechanism of removing heat to space. Some methods and tools of world energy development are suggested in the article. These methods could lead to a substantial reduction of anthropogenic thermal pollution of the planet.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2155 (1) ◽  
pp. 012019
V Gnyrya ◽  
Yu Gordienko ◽  
A Surayev ◽  
Yu Baklanova ◽  
P Kashaykin ◽  

Abstract One of the most important stages in the development of an experimental device is to carry out a series of computational studies to substantiate the compliance of device design with the objectives of the experiment, such as the choice of test modes and the study of standard and hypothetical emergency modes of its operation. Result of these studies is the neutron-physical, thermal, strength and hydrodynamic characteristics of the structural elements of the device and working bodies. During this work, a series of neutron calculations was conducted using the MCNP6 code and thermal-physical calculations using the ANSYS software package of two configurations of the experimental device. A feature of the calculated studies is the presence of specific requirements for the thermal state of the experimental device sleeve. Namely, ensuring a predetermined temperature gradient between its ribs, which should not exceed 4°K during the reactor tests.

2021 ◽  
Vol 31 (4) ◽  
pp. 544-558
Sergey S. Gryadunov ◽  
Vladimir V. Sivakov

Introduction. For surface tillage operation there widely used disc harrows, working bodies of which are discs wearing out during operation. The wear intensity of discs depends on the wear resistance of their working surfaces, working modes and properties of the cultivated soil. It has been found that an effective way to increase the life of discs is surfacing them with wear-resistant materials. The aim of the work is to study the wear out of surfacing materials, which can be used to harden discs and to make recommendation for the use of these materials in the repair departments of agricultural enterprises. Materials and Methods. Surfacing with electrodes T-590 and powder wires PP-Np200Kh15S1GRT, VELTEK-N560.02 and PP-Np280Kh9F7SG4 were taken as test materials. For wear tests of materials in abrasive mass, there was used an apparatus to simulate the moisture content and composition (sandy loam or loam) of the soil. In the disk-pad tests, the effect of abrasive particle size, load and sliding friction velocity on the wear of the materials was studied. In field tests, wear of the disks made of 65G steel, surfaced toothed and solid disks were monitored. Results. Laboratory studies of the materials revealed the effect of soil moisture and composition, load, abrasive grit and sliding friction velocity on wear. The main factor determining the wear resistance of materials is their structural state. The indexes of wear resistance of surfacing were determined during the laboratory tests and confirmed by field tests. Discussion and Conclusion. Surfacing with flux-cored wire PP-Np280Kh9F7SG4 has the highest wear resistance of the studied materials. The technology of hard-facing disks with modern materials, in particular with flux-cored wire PP-Np280Kh9F7SG4, can be implemented in repair departments of agricultural enterprises when they have the equipment for hard-facing and sharpening of working surfaces.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (4) ◽  
pp. 47-54
Anvar Dzuraev ◽  
Sardor Sayitkulov ◽  
Bekzod Bozorov ◽  
Sitora Fatullaeva

The article included information on how to improve the working bodies of the machine for cleaning raw cotton, including large waste mixtures waste disposal sites. Based on the analysis of the design of cotton ginning machines and working bodies, a new effective design scheme of cotton gin from large contaminants was developed. The recommended multi-faceted columns are characterized by good cleaning of cotton waste and maintenance of fiber quality.

2021 ◽  
pp. 312-320
Olena Nalobina ◽  
Andrij Shymko ◽  
Oleh Bundza ◽  
Mykola Holotiuk ◽  
Olexandr Herasymchuk ◽  

The amount of energy required to perform technological processes in agriculture largely depends on the size of the resistance to the displacement of the working bodies of machines. The main factor of energy consumption performing the technological process of potato harvesting is the resistance to the displacement of the digestive working body. In order to reduce the resistance to displacement an improved design of the digging body is proposed. An analytical study was conducted to determine the problem of moving the working body in the soil environment. The strength of the soil resistance is determined and the regularity of the influence on its change of parameters and the shape of the blade and separation parts of the digging working body is established. Calculations are made using the Mathematica application programm. The graphic dependences and contours of the isoline of the traction flange of the working part of the working body are obtained. Analysis of the calculations allowed to set the parameters of the surface of the dashboard, which provide a minimum of traction resistance. The schedule and contours of isolines of the change of the total resistance to the displacement of the soil mass with the tubers by the separation surface of the working organ in the function of the distance between the bars and the size of their intersection are also obtained. Analysis of the dependence of soil resistance and tubers on the separation surface indicates that an increase in the size of the geometric size of the intersection of the rods leads to a significant increase in the resistance of the medium. The material presented in the article can be used for analytical determination of the resistance of the excavation working body of potato harvesting machines of arbitrary geometric shape in the soil medium with tubers.

Volodymyr Novodvorskyi ◽  
Mykola Shved ◽  
Dmytro Shved

Polymer materials are widely spread and used in all industry sectors. The operating properties of polymer products make them practically indispensable in various industries. They have acquired widespread popularity and their production volumes are predicted to grow every year. The extrusion of polymers is one of the main methods for their processing. The melt uniformity is one of the main factors that influence the quality of the products and is determined by the level of mixing, i.e., by the redistribution of additives in a dispersion medium when these additives are introduced into the main polymer. The influence of working conditions, geometry of working bodies and other parameters on the melt temperature uniformity was determined. Nowadays, there are a lot of methods for determining the melt uniformity. They can be used indirectly in or after the extrusion process and can be short or long lasting, which in fact determines the acceptability of each of the methods. To determine the melt uniformity, statistical evaluation methods, which have been verified by many experiments and are well known, are often used. The analysis showed that the mixing index is most sensitive among the criteria described. Although statistical criteria of evaluating the melt uniformity are widespread, it is better to use parameters that allow the state of the mixture to be analyzed directly in the work process for the extrusion of polymers, to identify those that depend on the mixing process. Methods and criteria for verifying the melt quality were analyzed and potential use of their temperature uniformity for measuring and evaluating the melt quality directly in the extrusion process, to eliminate the costly sampling process, was determined.

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