field tests
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-28
Y. H. Kim ◽  
S. H. Chow ◽  
M. S. Hossain ◽  
J. Zhao ◽  
S. Rohan

This paper reports the results from field tests on a 1/15th scale recently developed fish anchor. The tests were conducted at three locations in the Swan River, Perth. Two series of tests were performed from the Burswood and Maylands jetties with water depths between 1.1 and 1.9 m. The final series of tests were undertaken in deeper waters of 2.6 m from a barge. The riverbed at the Burswood Jetty and barge test location consisted of soft clay, and that at the Maylands Jetty comprised sandy silt. The tip embedment depths of the scaled fish anchor, with dry weight of 0.304 kN and impact velocity of 5.89∼9.55 m/s, in soft clay were 1.17∼2.40 times the anchor length. For similar impact velocities, the tip embedment depths in sandy silt were 30 ∼ 60% shallower than those in soft clay. By comparing the field test data in clay, the fish anchor achieved normalised embedment depths similar to those of the torpedo and OMNI-Max anchors under half or less impact velocity. Most importantly, the field tests confirmed the diving behaviour of the fish anchor under loading with mudline inclination of 20° and 25°, with the second peak dictated the capacity. The ultimate capacity was 5∼7 times the anchor submerged weight in water.

Jelena Ivanović ◽  
Filip Kukić ◽  
Gianpiero Greco ◽  
Nenad Koropanovski ◽  
Saša Jakovljević ◽  

This study investigated the hierarchical structure of physical characteristics in elite young (i.e., U17-U19) basketball players according to playing positions. In addition, their predictive value of physical characteristics was determined for the evaluation of players’ physical preparedness. Sixty elite male basketball players performed 13 standardized specific field tests in order to assess the explosive power of lower limbs, speed, and change-of-direction speed. They were divided into three groups according to playing positions (guard [n = 28], forward [n = 22], center [n = 10]). The basic characteristics of the tested sample were: age = 17.36 ± 1.04 years, body height = 192.80 ± 4.49 cm, body mass = 79.83 ± 6.94 kg, and basketball experience = 9.38 ± 2.10 years for guards; age = 18.00 ± 1.00 years, body height = 201.48 ± 3.14 cm, body mass = 90.93 ± 9.85 kg, and basketball experience = 9.93 ± 2.28 years for forwards; and age = 17.60 ± 1.43 years; body height = 207.20 ± 3.29 cm, body mass = 104.00 ± 9.64 kg, and basketball experience = 9.20 ± 1.62 years for centers. For all playing positions factor analysis extracted three factors, which cumulatively explained 76.87, 88.12 and 87.63% of variance, respectively. The assessed performance measures were defined as significant (p < 0.001), with regression models of physical performance index (PPINDEX). PPINDEX of guards = −6.860 + (0.932 × t-test) − (1.656 × Acceleration 15 m) − (0.020 × Countermovement jump); PPINDEX of forwards = −3.436 − (0.046 × Countermovement jump with arm swing) − (1.295 × Acceleration 15 m) + (0.582 × Control of dribbling); PPINDEX of centers = −4.126 + (0.604 × Control of dribbling) − (1.315 × Acceleration 15 m) − (0.037 × Sargent jump). A model for the evaluation of physical performance of young basketball players has been defined. In addition, this model could be used as a reference model for selection procedures, as well as to monitor the efficacy of applied training programmes within the short, medium and long-term periodization.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Katharina Kirsch ◽  
Christina Fercher ◽  
Stephanie Horstmann ◽  
Caroline von Reitzenstein ◽  
Julia Augustin ◽  

Show jumping is a highly specialized equestrian discipline that requires technical skill but also power and fitness. Monitoring the horses’ aerobic performance is therefore essential in order to verify whether the training has induced the desired cardiovascular and muscular adaptations. This study therefore aimed at evaluating the validity of non-specific and discipline-specific field exercise tests for objective evaluation of aerobic performance in show jumpers. For this purpose, data obtained from horses competing at Junior and Young Rider level during show jumping competitions as well as field exercise tests were retrospectively analyzed. The effect of the level of difficulty, the horses’ age, the penalty score and the horses’ previous level of performance on blood lactate concentrations after show jumping competitions (100 observations in 49 horses) was evaluated by linear mixed effects models (horse as random effect). Estimated marginal means significantly increased from 140 (4.1 mmol/L) to 150 cm (5.2 mmol/L) classes (P = 0.02). Furthermore, post-exercise lactate values significantly increased with the horses’ age (P = 0.001). Another group of 12 horses performed a standardized incremental field exercise test on a track (SETtrack), a standardized show jumping course (SETcourse) and a standardized grid exercise (SETgrid) each on three consecutive days. Indices of aerobic performance, derived from the SETtrack [velocity at a heart rate of 140 bpm (V140) and at a lactate concentration of 2 mmol/L (VLa2)] were highly correlated with heart rate (V140: r = −0.75, P = 0.005; VLa2: r =−0.66, P = 0.02) and lactate (V140: r = −0.73, P = 0.02; VLa2: r = −0.72, P = 0.02) in response to SETcourse as well as heart rate during SETgrid (V140: r = −0.73, P = 0.02; VLa2: r = −0.76, P = 0.01). Subjective rating of muscular fatigue was significantly correlated to the mean heart rate during SETcourse (r = −0.64, P = 0.05) and SETgrid (r = −0.74, P = 0.02) but not to the aerobic indices calculated from SETtrack. Besides non-specific incremental field tests, performance monitoring in show jumpers should therefore also include discipline-specific tests that more closely reflect the internal load induced by show jumping competitions.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Tayllon dos Anjos-Garcia ◽  
Alexandre Kanashiro ◽  
Alline Cristina de Campos ◽  
Norberto Cysne Coimbra

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Environmental enrichment (EE) is a useful and sophisticated tool that improves rodents’ well-being by stimulating social behaviour and cognitive, motor, and sensory functions. Exposure to EE induces neuroplasticity in different brain areas, including the limbic system, which has been implicated in the control of anxiety and fear. However, the effects of EE on ethologically relevant naturalistic behaviours, such as those displayed by prey in the presence of predators, remain largely unexplored. <b><i>Material and Methods:</i></b> In the present study, we investigated anxiety- and panic attack-like behaviours in a predator (cat)-prey confrontation paradigm and compared them with those in classical assays, such as the elevated plus-maze (EPM), marble-burying, and open field tests (OFTs), using C57BL/6J male mice housed in enriched or standard environments for 6 weeks. <b><i>Results:</i></b> We observed that EE exposure caused enhancement of the levels of anxiety-like behaviours in the EPM and OFTs, increasing risk assessment (an anxiety-related response), and decreasing escape (a panic attack-like response) behaviours during exposure to the predator versus prey confrontation paradigm. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Taken together, our findings suggest that enriched external environments can modify the processing of fear- and anxiety-related stimuli in dangerous situations, changing the decision-making defensive strategy.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 553
Robert Cichowicz ◽  
Maciej Dobrzański

This study examines the concentrations of air pollution in the vicinity of a combined heat and power plant (CHP) and a communication route, using computer modeling of pollutant dispersion and spatial analysis based on real measurements in the city of Łódź, Poland, Europe. The research takes into account the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, PM1.0) and gaseous pollutants (SO2 and VOC) in winter and summer. The spatial distribution of pollutants is discussed, including the presence of areas with increased accumulations of pollutants. Because atmospheric air has no natural boundaries, when analyzing any location, not only local sources of pollution, but also background pollution, should be analyzed. A clear difference was observed between the concentrations of pollutants in the summer and winter seasons, with significantly higher concentrations in the winter (heating) period. The impacts of road transport, individual heating systems, and combined heat and power plants were also assessed. Computer calculations confirmed that road transport accounted for the largest share of both PM and SO2 emissions. The CHP plant was responsible for the smallest percentage of dust emissions and was the next largest producer of SO2 emissions. The share of the total emissions from the individual sources were compared with the results of detailed field tests. The numerical analysis of selected pollution sources in combination with the field analysis shows that the identified pollution sources included in the analysis represent only a part of the total observed pollutant concentrations (suggesting that other background sources account for the rest).

Plant Disease ◽  
2022 ◽  
Francisco Beluzán ◽  
Xavier Miarnau ◽  
Laura Torguet ◽  
Lourdes Zazurca ◽  
Paloma Abad-Campos ◽  

Twenty-five almond cultivars were assessed for susceptibility to Diaporthe amygdali, causal agent of twig canker and shoot blight disease. In laboratory experiments, growing twigs were inoculated with four D. amygdali isolates. Moreover, growing shoots of almond cultivars grafted onto INRA ‘GF-677’ rootstock were used in four-year field inoculations with one D. amygdali isolate. In both type of experiments, inoculum consisted of agar plugs with mycelium, which were inserted underneath the bark and the lesion lengths caused by the fungus were measured. Necrotic lesions were observed in the inoculated almond cultivars both in laboratory and field tests, confirming the susceptibility of all the evaluated cultivars to all the inoculated isolates of D. amygdali. Cultivars were grouped as susceptible or very susceptible according to a cluster analysis. The relationship between some agronomic traits and cultivar susceptibility was also investigated. Blooming and ripening times were found relevant variables to explain cultivars performance related to D. amygdali susceptibility. Late and very late blooming, and early and medium ripening cultivars were highly susceptible to D. amygdali. Our results may provide valuable information that could assist in ongoing breeding programs of this crop and additionally in the selection of cultivars for new almond plantations.

2022 ◽  
pp. 112067212110697
Marta Isabel Martínez-Sánchez ◽  
Gema Bolívar

Purpose To describe a case of Charles Bonnet syndrome as the first manifestation of occipital infarction in a patient with preserved visual acuity. Observations We report a 78-year-old man followed in our department with a two-month-long history of visual hallucinations based on the vision of flowers and fruits intermittently, being perceived as unreal images. Best-corrected visual acuity was stable in the follow-up time being 20/20 in the right eye and 20/25 in the left eye. Extraocular muscle function testing, pupillary reflexes, biomicroscopy, fundus and optical coherence tomography examinations did not reveal any interesting findings. In order to rule out occipital pathology, orbital-cerebral magnetic resonance imaging was performed, showing an image compatible with the chronic ischemic right occipital lesion. The patient was diagnosed with Charles Bonnet syndrome secondary to occipital infarction and neurology decided that no treatment was required. 24-2 and 10-2 visual field tests showed no remarkable alterations and Full-field 120 point screening test showed nonspecific peripheral defects. Hallucinations improved over the months, being described as not annoying and increasingly infrequent. Conclusions and Importance Charles Bonnet syndrome is a condition characterized by the presence of recurrent and complex visual hallucinations in patients with visual pathway pathologic defects. Visual acuity or visual field loss is not a requirement for diagnosis. Charles Bonnet syndrome should be suspected in all patients with non-disturbing visual hallucinations, even though they present good visual acuteness. It will be essential to perform complementary explorations to identify the underlying pathology that allows the starting of a correct treatment option.

Ying Gao ◽  
Tong Ren ◽  
Xia Zhao ◽  
Wentao Li

Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) are a collection of technologies that can enhance transport networks and public transit and individual decision-making about various elements of travel. ITS technologies comprise cutting-edge wireless, electronic and automated technology intending to improve safety, efficiency and convenience in surface transit. In certain cases, reducing energy usage has proven to be an ITS advantage. In this report, the primary energy advantages of a range of ITS systems established through models, pilot projects/field tests and extensive use are examined and summarized. In worldwide driving, the Internet of Things (IoT) solutions play a vital role. A new age of communication leading to ITS will be the communication between cars via IoT. IoT is a mixture of data and data analysis data storage and processing to manage the traffic system efficiently.Energy management, which is seen as an efficient, innovative approach to highly efficient energy generation plants. It simultaneously takes care of optimizing traditional sources of the IoT based intelligent transport system, helps to automate railways, roads, airways and shipways, which improve customer experience in the process. Following an evaluation of the situation, a proposal named energy management in intelligent transportation (EMIT) improves energy efficiency and economic efficiency in transportation. It improves energy management to reduce economic and ecological waste by decreasing global transport energy consumption. The sustainable development ratio is 85.7%, accidents detection ratio is 85.3%, electric vehicle infrastructure ratio is 83.6%, intelligent vehicle parking system acceptance ratio is 82.15%, and reduction ratio of energy consumption is 91.4%.

Laser Physics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 32 (2) ◽  
pp. 025101
R V Romashko ◽  
D V Storozhenko ◽  
M N Bezruk ◽  
D A Bobruyko ◽  
Y N Kulchin

Abstract A mobile scalar–vector acoustic receiver is proposed, experimentally implemented and investigated. The key components of the receiver are (a) the six-channel fiber-optic coil-type sensor configured as to detect three projections of acoustic intensity vector, (b) the six-channel optical phase demodulator based on six-channel adaptive holographic interferometer configured with use of dynamic holograms multiplexed in a photorefractive crystal of cadmium telluride and (c) the signals recording ADC-based system combined with software package for data processing. Field tests of the developed receiver applied for obtaining scalar and vector parameters of acoustic waves generated by a stationary and moving acoustic source in open air and water area are carried out. Experimental results show perceptiveness of use of the fiber-optical adaptive interferometry system for bearing of weak acoustic sources in real conditions.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 310
Martyna Świętochowska ◽  
Izabela Bartkowska

Water supply pumping stations are among the main energy-consuming elements in the water supply system. The energy optimization of a pumping station can significantly affect the energy consumption of a water utility. This article deals with the energy optimization of water pumping stations. The work assumes several variants of optimization of water supply pumping stations through changes in the water supply system, pressure changes in the pumping station, and modification of the number of pumps. After analyzing the network, conducting field tests, and creating a model of the water supply network, the network was calibrated in order to reproduce the existing water network as accurately as possible. Then, a variant analysis was performed, and the best optimization method for the pumping station was selected. In two variants, there was a decrease in electricity consumption; in three there, was an increase; in one, there was no change. By connecting the DMA zones and modifying the pressure in the pumping station, the energy consumption of the pumping stations was reduced. On this basis, it was found that it is possible to optimize the water pumping station by modifying the pumping station and work related to the network layout.

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