water vapor
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Fuel ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 315 ◽  
pp. 123169
Zhipeng Yuan ◽  
Linming Xie ◽  
Xingyu Sun ◽  
Rumin Wang ◽  
Huaqin Li ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 5-12
Gabriela Aleksić ◽  
Tomislav Cigula ◽  
Suzana Pasanec Preprotić ◽  

The aim of this study was to stress the importance of investigating the prop- erties of preservation enclosure materials in order to identify the ones that are able to protect their contents more efficiently. Since not all information on materials is covered by international standards and technical specifica- tions, nine paper-based materials used for making preservation enclosures (file folders, passepartouts, boxes etc.) were investigated. A selective analysis of the materials' properties was carried out to determine smoothness, water absorptiveness, water wettability, water vapor permeability, tensile strength, folding endurance, bursting strength, puncture strength, as well as loss of bursting strength caused by dry heat and 100% RH. Results obtained from measuring smoothness, water absorptiveness, water wettability and water vapor transmission rate indicate that a material outside of ISO 16245:2009 grammage requirements for making file covers can exhibit more desirable properties than the one that meets multiple standards for storage and preservation. Additionally, results showed that bursting strength of enclosure materials was significantly affected by both extreme microclimate condi- tions. However, 100% RH had affected bursting strength of the investigated materials more than dry heat. The presented procedure proved to be a useful indicator of materials’ properties within the context of heritage collections preservation and storage.

Atmosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 130
Haoyu Liu ◽  
Lijuan Wang ◽  
Yufan Dai ◽  
Hong Chen

Based on the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) best-track data, the ERA5 reanalysis, and the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) precipitation data, this paper analyzes the reasons for the heavy rainfall event of Super Typhoon Rammasun in 2014, and the results are as follows: (1) Rammasun was blocked by the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH), the continental high, and the mid-latitude westerly trough. Such a stable circulation pattern maintained the vortex circulation of Rammasun. (2) During the period of landfall, the southwest summer monsoon surge was reinforced due to the dramatic increase of the zonal wind and the cross-equatorial flow near 108° E. The results of the dynamic monsoon surge index (DMSI) and boundary water vapor budget (BWVB) show that the monsoon surge kept providing abundant water vapor for Rammasun, which led to the enhanced rainfall. (3) The East Asian monsoon manifested an obvious low-frequency oscillation with a main period of 20–40 days in the summer of 2014, which propagated northward significantly. When the low-frequency oscillation reached the extremely active phase, the monsoon surge hit the maximum and influenced the circulation of Rammasun. Meanwhile, the convergence and water vapor flux associated with the low-frequency oscillation significantly contributed to the heavy rainfall.

2022 ◽  
Tiago Silva ◽  
Jakob Abermann ◽  
Brice Noël ◽  
Sonika Shahi ◽  
Willem Jan van de Berg ◽  

Abstract. Climate change is particularly strong in Greenland primarily as a result of changes in advection of heat and moisture fluxes from lower latitudes. The atmospheric structures involved influence the surface mass balance and their pattern are largely explained by climate oscillations which describe the internal climate variability. Based on a clustering method, we combine the Greenland Blocking Index and the North Atlantic Oscillation index with the vertically integrated water vapor to analyze inter-seasonal and regional impacts of the North Atlantic influence on the surface energy components over the Greenland Ice Sheet. In comparison to the reference period (1959–1990), the atmosphere has become warmer and moister during recent decades (1991–2020) for contrasting atmospheric circulation patterns. Particularly in the northern regions, increases in tropospheric water vapor enhance incoming longwave radiation and thus contribute to surface warming. Surface warming is most evident in winter, although its magnitude and spatial extent depend on the prevailing atmospheric configuration. Relative to the reference period, increases in sensible heat flux in the summer ablation zone are found irrespective of the atmospheric circulation pattern. Especially in the northern ablation zone, these are explained by the stronger katabatic winds which are partly driven by the larger surface pressure gradients between the ice/snow-covered surface and adjacent seas, and by the larger temperature gradient between near-surface air and the air above. Increases in net shortwave radiation are mainly connected to high-pressure systems. Whereas in the southern part of Greenland the atmosphere has gotten optical thinner, thus allowing more incoming shortwave radiation to reach the surface, in the northern part the incoming shortwave radiation flux has changed little with respect to the reference period, but the surface albedo decreased due to the expansion of the bare ice area.

Dawei Fang ◽  
Xinyu An ◽  
Ang Zhang ◽  
Xi Li ◽  
Xiaoxue Ma ◽  

Abstract Carbon nanofibers with multi-scale pores have been easily constructed by synchronous water etching during the carbonization process of PAN nanofibers, reducing the additional consumption of energy and time. After etching by high-temperature water vapor, the fiber surface becomes more coarse, and large amounts of etched pits are formed, effectively increasing the electrode’s specific surface area and hydrophilicity. Oxygen content is also significantly increased, which may effectively increase the electrocatalytic active sites of the electrode. Electrochemical tests verified the improved electrocatalytic activity and increased effective surface area. As a result, the VRFB single cell with water vapor etched carbon nanofibers as its electrode shows higher battery efficiencies than that with pristine carbon nanofibers; the energy efficiency improves by nearly 9.4% at 200 mA·cm-2. After 100 charge/discharge cycles, the battery efficiency has no obvious attenuation, and the capacity attenuation rate of single cycle is nearly 0.26%,suggesting a satisfactory cycling stability. This green and simple method for constructing multi-scale porous carbon nanofibers electrode is expected to achieve large-scale production of high-performance electrode materials, and can be applied in various electrochemical energy storage systems.

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