material composition
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Miranda M. Sroda ◽  
Jaejun Lee ◽  
Younghoon Kwon ◽  
Friedrich Stricker ◽  
Minwook Park ◽  

Pietro Pandolfi ◽  
Maria Pia Sammartino ◽  
Giovanni Visco ◽  
Pasquale Avino ◽  
Virgilio Stillittano

Different plastic toys are on sale in the Italian market: they are sold as souvenirs and/or as toys. Such statuettes, called Gongoli, represent a famous character (a soccer player, a politician, the Pope, etc.). In particular, these products are widely sold, but the material composition is not sufficiently defined. Further, the effect of the release of dangerous compounds on human health is not sufficiently documented. Following this hypothesis, a study on eight different statuettes was carried out both for evaluating the possible presence of heavy metals and for evidencing their release from these objects. Preliminary analysis by means of EDS spectroscopy highlighted the percentage chemical composition of different products, especially the presence of total Cr and Ni. Release tests evidenced the release of Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb: Pb reached 74 mg kg−1, which is an interesting value even if it is lower than reported in the legislation. This study should be considered preliminary due to its limitations, such as the number of items investigated and the large variability found for some elements, but it highlights a serious problem related to the classification of these products which are marketed as souvenirs but manipulated by children.

Yu.V. Erokhin ◽  
V.S. Ponomarev ◽  
A.V. Zakharov ◽  
L.V. Leonova ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. 167-174
A. I. Vezentsev ◽  
V. S. Sevostianov ◽  
A. E. Razdobarin ◽  
R. U. Shamgulov

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (23) ◽  
pp. 7162
Marta Stachnik ◽  
Monika Sterczyńska ◽  
Emilia Smarzewska ◽  
Anna Ptaszek ◽  
Joanna Piepiórka-Stepuk ◽  

The boiling of beer wort with hops results in the formation of a hot trub, a sediment consisting mainly of water-insoluble tannin and protein conglomerates and hop residue. Hot trub is a waste product, removed in a clarifying tank and discarded. The use of barley malt substitutes in recipes for beer is associated with an increase in the amount of generated hot trub. In presented study, an analysis of the rheological properties of industrial hot trub was carried out. Samples varied with regard to the quantities of unmalted barley (0%, 35%, and 45%) and worts’ extract (12.5, 14.1, 16.1, and 18.2 °Plato) in the recipe. The rheology of each type of sludge was determined using a hysteresis loop at four different temperatures. The results showed the shear-thinning and thixotropic properties of the hot trub. It was found that, regardless of the raw material and extract used, all samples exhibited the same rheological properties, but with different values. It was also proved that both raw material composition and temperature affected the hot trub’s rheology. The highest values of viscosity were identified for malted barley, whereas the lowest apparent viscosity values were recorded for the hot trub with a 30% addition of unmalted barley. The Herschel–Bulkley model had the best fit to the experimental data.

Andreas Svanström ◽  
Jennifer Rosendahl ◽  
Simona Salerno ◽  
Emma Jonasson ◽  
Joakim Håkansson ◽  

The field of 3D cell cultures is currently emerging, and material development is essential in striving toward mimicking the microenvironment of a native tissue. By using the response of reporter cells to a 3D environment, a comparison between materials can be assessed, allowing optimization of material composition and microenvironment. Of particular interest, the response can be different in a normoxic and hypoxic culturing conditions, which in turn may alter the conclusion regarding a successful recreation of the microenvironment. This study aimed at determining the role of such environments to the conclusion of a better resembling cell culture model to native tissue. Here, the breast cancer cell line MCF7 was cultured in normoxic and hypoxic conditions on patient-derived scaffolds and compared at mRNA and protein levels to cells cultured on 3D printed scaffolds, Matrigel, and conventional 2D plastics. Specifically, a wide range of mRNA targets (40), identified as being regulated upon hypoxia and traditional markers for cell traits (cancer stem cells, epithelial–mesenchymal transition, pluripotency, proliferation, and differentiation), were used together with a selection of corresponding protein targets. 3D cultured cells were vastly different to 2D cultured cells in gene expression and protein levels on the majority of the selected targets in both normoxic and hypoxic culturing conditions. By comparing Matrigel and 3DPS-cultured cells to cells cultured on patient-derived scffolds, differences were also noted along all categories of mRNA targets while specifically for the GLUT3 protein. Overall, cells cultured on patient-derived scaffolds closely resembled cells cultured on 3D printed scaffolds, contrasting 2D and Matrigel-cultured cells, regardless of a normoxic or hypoxic culturing condition. Thus, these data support the use of either a normoxic or hypoxic culturing condition in assays using native tissues as a blueprint to optimize material composition.

2021 ◽  
Vol 906 (1) ◽  
pp. 012031
G. Albina Kopylova ◽  
S. Sargylana Gogoleva

Abstract Basite magmatism has been manifested repeatedly for a long time in various geodynamic structures within the eastern part of the Siberian platform. In the Middle Paleozoic, it was related to rifting processes, and in the Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic – to the initiation and development of trap syneclises. Differences of the geodynamic regime of magma formation are displayed in the material composition of rocks. This report presents a generalizing study of the petro-geochemical features of the tholeiitic basaltic melts formed in different geodynamic settings. The initial magmas composition changes significantly at different stages of the magmatic system development. Using multicomponent analysis, we reviewed the impact of the fractionation processes of the basal melt, which occurred under various PT conditions, on its material composition. Among the trapp bodies there are powerful differentiated intrusions. A significant change of the composition occurs during the intra-chamber differentiation of the melt in a sequence of rock strata varied from the basic magnesian to felsic alkaline rocks. In the resulting series of rocks, the content of rare elements included in the lattice of the early femic phases decreases, as well as the accumulation of almost all incompatible elements. The evolution of melts of normal alkalinity occurs with an increase of REE content and their insignificant separation. Intrusions that have undergone the stage of high-pressure fractionation in the deep transitional chamber are of particular importance. As a result of such differentiation, a peculiar group of rocks is formed in the cross section of the Middle Paleozoic bodies, such as monzonite-porphyries in one case and anorthosite gabbro-dolerites - in the other. . It is established that the monzoitoid type of differentiation is characterized by accumulation of LREE, LILE and elements of the zirconium group Nb, Ta, Hf and Y. Isolation of anorthosite gabbro-dolerites in the cross-section of bodies, as well as an increase in the content of aluminum, calcium, and strontium in them, is an indication of the anorthositic tendency of magmatic melt differentiation/When the basite-tholeiite melt interacts with the mantle reducing fluid in the deep core, its metallization occurs with the release of drop-liquid separations of native iron up to the formation of its large segregations. Intrusions with a large-scale content of native iron are found among the trap formations of Siberia. All this leads to a decrease in the total concentration and activity of iron in the partially metallized silicate matrix, there is a significant increase in the content of MgO and trace elements-Ni, Co, Cr. The Fe-phase-containing intrusives are characterized by minimal LILE, HFSE, and REE contents. Start your abstract here… 250 to 500 words concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should include the purpose of research, principal results and major conclusions. References should be avoided, if it is essential, only cite the author(s) and year(s) without giving reference list. Prepare your abstract in this file and upload it into the registration web field.

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