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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
B. R. R. M. Nassau ◽  
P. S. C. Mascarenhas ◽  
A. G. Guimarães ◽  
F. M. Feitosa ◽  
H. M. Ferreira ◽  
...  

Abstract The inheritance of the seedless fruit characteristic of Annona squamosa has not yet been explained. Molecular techniques may aid breeding programs, mainly in the assisted selection of the target gene. The INO gene may be related to seed development in these fruits. The objective of the present paper was to investigate the inheritance of seedlessness in the 'Brazilian seedless' sugar apple and INO gene conservation in Annona squamosa and Annona cherimola x Annona squamosa genotypes by assessing their homology with the INO database genes. The F1 generation was obtained by crossing the mutant 'Brazilian seedless' (male genitor) (P1) with the wild-type A. squamosa with seeds (M1 and M2, female genitors). The INO gene was studied in mutant and wild-type A. squamosa (P1, M1, M2 and M3) and in the Gefner atemoya (A. cherimola x A. squamosa) (M4) cultivar. The DNA was extracted from young leaves, and four sets of specific primers flanking the INO gene were amplified. The seedless characteristic was identified as stenospermatic in the fruits of parental P1, suggesting monogenic inheritance with complete dominance. High sequence similarity of the INO gene amplifications in the sugar apple accessions (M1, M2, M3) and the atemoya cultivar Gefner (M4) reinforces the hypothesis of their conservation.


2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
S. Khalid ◽  
R. Siddique ◽  
S. Shaheen ◽  
M. N. Shahid ◽  
Z. Shamim ◽  
...  

Abstract Novel coronavirus (nCoV) namely “SARS-CoV-2” is being found responsible for current PANDEMIC commenced from Wuhan (China) since December 2019 and has been described with epidemiological linkage to China in about 221 countries and territories until now. In this study we have characterized the genetic lineage of SARS-CoV-2 and report the recombination within the genus and subgenus of coronaviruses. Phylogenetic relationship of thirty nine coronaviruses belonging to its four genera and five subgenera was analyzed by using the Neighbor-joining method using MEGA 6.0. Phylogenetic trees of full length genome, various proteins (spike, envelope, membrane and nucleocapsid) nucleotide sequences were constructed separately. Putative recombination was probed via RDP4. Our analysis describes that the “SARS-CoV-2” although shows great similarity to Bat-SARS-CoVs sequences through whole genome (giving sequence similarity 89%), exhibits conflicting grouping with the Bat-SARS-like coronavirus sequences (MG772933 and MG772934). Furthermore, seven recombination events were observed in SARS-CoV-2 (NC_045512) by RDP4. But not a single recombination event fulfills the high level of certainty. Recombination mostly housed in spike protein genes than rest of the genome indicating breakpoint cluster arises beyond the 95% and 99% breakpoint density intervals. Genetic similarity levels observed among “SARS-CoV-2” and Bat-SARS-CoVs advocated that the latter did not exhibit the specific variant that cause outbreak in humans, proposing a suggestion that “SARS-CoV-2” has originated possibly from bats. These genomic features and their probable association with virus characteristics along with virulence in humans require further consideration.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ksenia G Kuznetsova ◽  
Sofia S Zvonareva ◽  
Rustam Ziganshin ◽  
Elena S Mekhova ◽  
Polina Yu Dgebuadze ◽  
...  

Venoms of predatory marine cone snails (the family Conidae, order Neogastropoda) are intensely studied because of the broad range of biomedical applications of the neuropeptides that they contain, conotoxins. Meanwhile anatomy in some other neogastropod lineages strongly suggests that they have evolved similar venoms independently of cone snails, nevertheless their venom composition remains unstudied. Here we focus on the most diversified of these lineages, the genus Vexillum (the family Costellariidae). We have generated comprehensive multi-specimen, multi-tissue RNA-Seq data sets for three Vexillum species, and supported our findings in two species by proteomic profiling. We show that venoms of Vexillum are dominated by highly diversified short cysteine-rich peptides that in many aspects are very similar to conotoxins. Vexitoxins possess the same precursor organization, display overlapping cysteine frameworks and share several common post-translational modifications with conotoxins. Some vexitoxins show detectable sequence similarity to conotoxins, and are predicted to adopt similar domain conformations, including a pharmacologically relevant inhibitory cysteine-know motif (ICK). The tubular gL of Vexillum is a notably more recent evolutionary novelty than the conoidean venom gland. Thus, we hypothesize lower divergence between the toxin genes, and their somatic counterparts compared to that in conotoxins, and we find support for this hypothesis in the molecular evolution of the vexitoxin cluster V027. We use this example to discuss how future studies on vexitoxins can inform origin and evolution of conotoxins, and how they may help addressing standing questions in venom evolution.


Marine Drugs ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. 74
Author(s):  
Kenneth Sandoval ◽  
Grace P. McCormack

Actinoporins are proteinaceous toxins known for their ability to bind to and create pores in cellular membranes. This quality has generated interest in their potential use as new tools, such as therapeutic immunotoxins. Isolated historically from sea anemones, genes encoding for similar actinoporin-like proteins have since been found in a small number of other animal phyla. Sequencing and de novo assembly of Irish Haliclona transcriptomes indicated that sponges also possess similar genes. An exhaustive analysis of publicly available sequencing data from other sponges showed that this is a potentially widespread feature of the Porifera. While many sponge proteins possess a sequence similarity of 27.70–59.06% to actinoporins, they show consistency in predicted structure. One gene copy from H. indistincta has significant sequence similarity to sea anemone actinoporins and possesses conserved residues associated with the fundamental roles of sphingomyelin recognition, membrane attachment, oligomerization, and pore formation, indicating that it may be an actinoporin. Phylogenetic analyses indicate frequent gene duplication, no distinct clade for sponge-derived proteins, and a stronger signal towards actinoporins than similar proteins from other phyla. Overall, this study provides evidence that a diverse array of Porifera represents a novel source of actinoporin-like proteins which may have biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 84
Author(s):  
Marilia M. Knychala ◽  
Angela A. dos Santos ◽  
Leonardo G. Kretzer ◽  
Fernanda Gelsleichter ◽  
Maria José Leandro ◽  
...  

In previous work, we developed a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (DLG-K1) lacking the main monosaccharide transporters (hxt-null) and displaying high xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase and xylulokinase activities. This strain proved to be a useful chassis strain to study new glucose/xylose transporters, as SsXUT1 from Scheffersomyces stipitis. Proteins with high amino acid sequence similarity (78–80%) to SsXUT1 were identified from Spathaspora passalidarum and Spathaspora arborariae genomes. The characterization of these putative transporter genes (SpXUT1 and SaXUT1, respectively) was performed in the same chassis strain. Surprisingly, the cloned genes could not restore the ability to grow in several monosaccharides tested (including glucose and xylose), but after being grown in maltose, the uptake of 14C-glucose and 14C-xylose was detected. While SsXUT1 lacks lysine residues with high ubiquitinylation potential in its N-terminal domain and displays only one in its C-terminal domain, both SpXUT1 and SaXUT1 transporters have several such residues in their C-terminal domains. A truncated version of SpXUT1 gene, deprived of the respective 3′-end, was cloned in DLG-K1 and allowed growth and fermentation in glucose or xylose. In another approach, two arrestins known to be involved in the ubiquitinylation and endocytosis of sugar transporters (ROD1 and ROG3) were knocked out, but only the rog3 mutant allowed a significant improvement of growth and fermentation in glucose when either of the XUT permeases were expressed. Therefore, for the efficient heterologous expression of monosaccharide (e.g., glucose/xylose) transporters in S. cerevisiae, we propose either the removal of lysines involved in ubiquitinylation and endocytosis or the use of chassis strains hampered in the specific mechanism of membrane protein turnover.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Fang Wang ◽  
Caixia Cheng ◽  
Xinhui Wang ◽  
Fei Chen ◽  
Hongyi Li ◽  
...  

Family with sequence similarity 84, member B (FAM84B) is a significant copy number amplification gene in the 8q24.21 locus identified by our previous WGS study in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, its clinical relevance and potential mechanisms have been elusive. Here, we performed the association analyses between FAM84BAmp and clinicopathological features using our dataset with 507 ESCC samples. The results indicated that, compared with the FAM84Bnon-Amp patients, the FAM84BAmp patients showed a more aggressive and a worse prognosis. Significant correlation was discovered between the expression level of FAM84B and FAM84BAmp in ESCC cohort. Furthermore, we found that the forced expression change of FAM84B can influence ESCC cell proliferation and cell cycle status, which is probably mediated by NPM1. A direct interaction between FAM84B and the C-terminal (189-294aa) of NPM1 was identified, which increased the NPM1 nuclear expression. Over-expression of NPM1 could inhibit the CDKN2A protein expression, which might affect the ESCC cell cycle. Our results indicate FAM84B CNA may be a potential diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker in ESCC, meanwhile, reveal a novel mechanism of FAM84B that it promotes tumorigenesis via interacting with NPM1 and suppressing CDKN2A.


Author(s):  
Duong Vu ◽  
Henrik Nilsson ◽  
Gerard Verkley

The accuracy and precision of fungal molecular identification and classification are challenging, particularly in environmental metabarcoding approaches as these often trade accuracy for efficiency given the large data volumes at hand. In most ecological studies, only a single similarity cut-off value is used for sequence identification. This is not sufficient since the most commonly used DNA markers are known to vary widely in terms of inter- and intra-specific variability. We address this problem by presenting a new tool, dnabarcoder, to analyze and predict different local similarity cut-offs for sequence identification for different clades of fungi. For each similarity cut-off in a clade, a confidence measure is computed to evaluate the resolving power of the genetic marker in that clade. Experimental results showed that when analyzing a recently released filamentous fungal ITS DNA barcode dataset of CBS strains from the Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute, the predicted local similarity cut-offs varied immensely between the clades of the dataset. In addition, most of them had a higher confidence measure than the global similarity cut-off predicted for the whole dataset. When classifying a large public fungal ITS dataset – the UNITE database - against the barcode dataset, the local similarity cut-offs assigned fewer sequences than the traditional cut-offs used in metabarcoding studies. However, the obtained accuracy and precision were significantly improved.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Senlie Octaviana ◽  
Stefan Lorenczyk ◽  
Frederike Ackert ◽  
Joachim Wink

Abstract Four strains isolated, PWU4T, PWU20T, PWU5T and PWU37T were from both of soil in Germany, India and a faces sheep collected in Crete Island, respectively. Cells were Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, rod shaped, grew optimally between 28oC and 34oC, pH between 7.0 and 8.0 without the addition of NaCl. Catalase and oxidase-negative and grew on most mono- and disaccharides, a few polysaccharides and organic acid. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7. Major fatty acid was c16:1 ω7c (PWU4T and PWU20T) and c16:1 ω5c (PWU5T and PWU37T). The DNA G+C content of them were 50.2 mol %; 51.6 mol %; 39.8 mol % and 53.8 mol %, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the closest relatives of them are less than 93.8% compared to Ohtaekwangia koreensis 3B-2T and Ohtaekwangia kribbensis 10AOT. It classified in two groups, where PWU4T, PWU20T shared 93.0% and PWU5T, PWU37T shared 97.5% sequence similarity. However, in both groups represent different species on the low average nucleotide identity (ANI) of their genomes, 69.7% and 83.8%, respectively. We proposed that the four strains represent four novel species of two new genera in the family Cytophagaceae. The type species of the novel genus Cryseosolum are Cryseosolum histdinii gen. nov., sp. nov. strain PWU4T (=DSM 111594T=NCCB 100798T), Cryseosolum indiensis sp. nov. strain PWU20T (=DSM 111597T=NCCB 100800T). The type species of the novel genus Reichenbachia are Reichenbachia cretensis gen. nov., sp. nov. strain PWU5T (=DSM 111596T=NCCB 100799T), Reichenbachia soli sp. nov. strain PWU37T (=DSM 111595T=NCCB 100801T).


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Nagendran Krishnan ◽  
Shweta Kumari ◽  
Koshlendra Kumar Pandey ◽  
Sudhakar Pandey ◽  
Tusar Kanti Behera ◽  
...  

Abstract The pathogen responsible for yellowing and downward rolling of leaves of squash and watermelon plants from Uttar Pradesh state, India, was identified as probably strains of Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) through RT-PCR using universal Polerovirus primers followed by sequencing. The full-length genome sequences of an isolate from squash (POL-SQ - 5650 nt) and one from watermelon (POL-WM - 5647nt) were determined by sequencing the products from RT-PCR with six sets of primers with overlapping products. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis showed that these isolates had closest identity with a recombinant strain obtained between CABYV and Melon aphid-borne yellows virus (MABYV) reported from Taiwan infecting Luffa aegyptiaca (CABYV-R-TW82) rather than other Asian, American, or European isolates. The deduced amino acid sequences of the P0, P1 and P1-P2 proteins showed >10% variation, whereas the P3, P4 and P3-P5 proteins showed <10% variation when compared to the corresponding proteins of other strains of CABYV worldwide. Thus, according to the Polerovirus species demarcation threshold, these new sequences should be regarded as representing strains of a novel previously undescribed Polerovirus species. However, based on their sequence similarity and phylogenetic grouping with the recombinant strain from Taiwan we suggest these sequences represent recombinant strains of CABYV. These are the first full-length genome sequences for CABYV strains from India and this study adds watermelon as host for CABYV in India.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
James Kelly ◽  
Jessica Swanson ◽  
Joseph Newman ◽  
Elisabetta Groppelli ◽  
Nicola Stonehouse ◽  
...  

Kobuviruses are an unusual and poorly characterised genus within the picornavirus family, and can cause gastrointestinal enteric disease in humans, livestock and pets. The human Kobuvirus, Aichi virus (AiV) can cause severe gastroenteritis and deaths in children below the age of five years, however this is a very rare occurrence. During the assembly of most picornaviruses (e.g. poliovirus, rhinovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus), the capsid precursor protein VP0 is cleaved into VP4 and VP2. However, Kobuviruses retain an uncleaved VP0. From studies with other picornaviruses, it is known that VP4 performs the essential function of pore formation in membranes, which facilitates transfer of the viral genome across the endosomal membrane and into the cytoplasm for replication. Here, we employ genome exposure and membrane interaction assays to demonstrate that pH plays a critical role in AiV uncoating and membrane interactions. We demonstrate that incubation at low pH alters the exposure of hydrophobic residues within the capsid, enhances genome exposure and enhances permeabilisation of model membranes. Furthermore, using peptides we demonstrate that the N-terminus of VP0 mediates membrane pore formation in model membranes, indicating that this plays an analogous function to VP4. Importance: To initiate infection, viruses must enter a host cell and deliver their genome into the appropriate location. The picornavirus family of small non-enveloped RNA viruses includes significant human and animal pathogens and are also models to understand the process of cell entry. Most picornavirus capsids contain the internal protein VP4, generated from cleavage of a VP0 precursor. During entry, VP4 is released from the capsid. In enteroviruses this forms a membrane pore, which facilitates genome release into the cytoplasm. Due to high levels of sequence similarity, it is expected to play the same role for other picornaviruses. Some picornaviruses, such as Aichi virus, retain an intact VP0, and it is unknown how these viruses re-arrange their capsids and induce membrane permeability in the absence of VP4. Here we have used Aichi virus as a model VP0 virus to test for conservation of function between VP0 and VP4. This could enhance understanding of pore function and lead to development of novel therapeutic agents that block entry.


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