Complete Dominance
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
B. R. R. M. Nassau ◽  
P. S. C. Mascarenhas ◽  
A. G. Guimarães ◽  
F. M. Feitosa ◽  
H. M. Ferreira ◽  
...  

Abstract The inheritance of the seedless fruit characteristic of Annona squamosa has not yet been explained. Molecular techniques may aid breeding programs, mainly in the assisted selection of the target gene. The INO gene may be related to seed development in these fruits. The objective of the present paper was to investigate the inheritance of seedlessness in the 'Brazilian seedless' sugar apple and INO gene conservation in Annona squamosa and Annona cherimola x Annona squamosa genotypes by assessing their homology with the INO database genes. The F1 generation was obtained by crossing the mutant 'Brazilian seedless' (male genitor) (P1) with the wild-type A. squamosa with seeds (M1 and M2, female genitors). The INO gene was studied in mutant and wild-type A. squamosa (P1, M1, M2 and M3) and in the Gefner atemoya (A. cherimola x A. squamosa) (M4) cultivar. The DNA was extracted from young leaves, and four sets of specific primers flanking the INO gene were amplified. The seedless characteristic was identified as stenospermatic in the fruits of parental P1, suggesting monogenic inheritance with complete dominance. High sequence similarity of the INO gene amplifications in the sugar apple accessions (M1, M2, M3) and the atemoya cultivar Gefner (M4) reinforces the hypothesis of their conservation.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Author(s):  
Samira Zamani ◽  
Anis Mohammadi ◽  
Bahareh Hajikhani ◽  
Parnaz Abiri ◽  
Maryam Fazeli ◽  
...  

The spread of mupirocin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in hospitals and communities is a universal challenge. Limited data is available on the genetic features of high-level mupirocin resistant- (HLMUPR-) S. aureus isolates in Tehran. In the present research, we investigated 48 high-level mupirocin resistance S. aureus by antimicrobial activity, virulence analysis, biofilm formation, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and staphylocoagulase (SC) typing. All the HLMUPR strains were positive for mupA gene. The frequency of multidrug resistance was 97.9%. Twenty-one (43.8%) were toxinogenic with 14 producing pvl (29.2%), 5 tst (10.4%), and two eta (4.2%). Among the HLMUPR isolates, biofilm production was detected in 45 (89.6%) isolates with complete dominance clfB, clfA genes, and a noticeably high frequency fnbA (95.8%), followed by fnbB (93.8%), eno and icaD (each 83.3%), sdrC (81.3%), ebps (79.2%), icaA (75%), sdrD (66.7%), fib (60.4%), sdrE (50%), cna (41.7%), and bap (4.2%). Coagulase typing distinguished isolates into four genotypic patterns including III (50%), II (27.1%), and type IVa (22.9%). A total of three clonal complexes (CCs) and 4 sequence types (STs) including CC/ST22 as the most prevalent (52.1%), CC8/ST239 (20.8%), CC/ST8 (16.7%), and CC/ST5 (10.4%) were identified in current work. According to our analysis, nonbiofilm producer isolates belonged to CC8/ST239 (6.3%) and CC/ST8 (4.2%). Fusidic acid-resistant isolates belonged to CC/ST45 ( n = 3 ) and CC8/ST239 ( n = 1 ). Observations highlighted the circulation of the CC/ST22 HLMUPR S. aureus strains with strong biofilm-production ability in our hospitals, indicating the possibility of transmission of this type between community and hospital.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Albert Ruman ◽  
Anna Ruman

Abstract The Köppen–Geiger climate classification is used to determine climate types in region of Pannonian Basin with data from the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. The study covers a period from years 2021 until 2100, and it shows how certain climate types are changing in percentage in thirty-year averages for six periods. In the period 1960-1990 years of the last century, the dominant climate type was warm summer humid continental climate (Dfb) with 98% presences in the region. The results show that the change of this climate type to the humid subtropical climate type (Cfa) began in the first half of the 21st century. The complete dominance of humid subtropical climate type in the most areas of the Pannonian Basin characterized the second half of the 21st century. Also, results show creation of a warm summer Mediterranean climate type (Csa), which according to certain simulations, is present from 10% to 30% on average in the region. In the central part of the region, a cold desert climate type (Bsk) was formed with approximately 6% presences in the region. This creation of climate types in some parts of the region shows that in the second half of 21st century drier and a warmer climate is expected compared to the last century.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 (12) ◽  
Author(s):  
Alexandre Carvunis ◽  
Francesco Dettori ◽  
Shireen Gangal ◽  
Diego Guadagnoli ◽  
Camille Normand

Abstract We consider the $$ {B}_s^0 $$ B s 0 → μ+μ−γ effective lifetime, and the related CP-phase sensitive quantity $$ {A}_{{\Delta \Gamma}_s}^{\mu \mu \gamma} $$ A ΔΓ s μμγ , as a way to obtain qualitatively new insights on the current B-decay discrepancies. Through a fit comparing pre- to post-Moriond-2021 data we identify a few theory benchmark scenarios addressing these discrepancies, and featuring large CP violation in addition. We then explore the possibility of telling apart these scenarios with $$ {A}_{{\Delta \Gamma}_s}^{\mu \mu \gamma} $$ A ΔΓ s μμγ , once resonance-modeling and form-factor uncertainties are taken into account. We do so in both regions of low and high invariant di-lepton mass-squared q2. For low q2, we show how to shape the integration range in order to reduce the impact of the ϕ-resonance modelling on the $$ {A}_{{\Delta \Gamma}_s}^{\mu \mu \gamma} $$ A ΔΓ s μμγ prediction. For high q2, we find that the corresponding pollution from broad-charmonium resonances has a surprisingly small effect on $$ {A}_{{\Delta \Gamma}_s}^{\mu \mu \gamma} $$ A ΔΓ s μμγ . This is due to a number of cancellations, that can be traced back to the complete dominance of semi-leptonic operator contributions for high q2 — at variance with low q2 — and to $$ {A}_{{\Delta \Gamma}_s}^{\mu \mu \gamma} $$ A ΔΓ s μμγ behaving like a ratio-of-amplitudes observable. Our study suggests that $$ {A}_{{\Delta \Gamma}_s}^{\mu \mu \gamma} $$ A ΔΓ s μμγ is — especially at high q2 — a potentially valuable probe of short-distance CP-violating effects in the very same Wilson coefficients that are associated to current b → s discrepancies. Its discriminating power, however, relies on progress in form-factor uncertainties. Interestingly, high q2 is the region where $$ {B}_s^0 $$ B s 0 → μ+μ−γ is already being accessed experimentally, and the region where form factors are more accessible through non-perturbative QCD methods.


2021 ◽  
pp. 35-61
Author(s):  
Mukulika Banerjee

Chapter 2 provides a detailed account of the three key stories of change that form the backdrop to this study—in paddy cultivation, electoral politics, and the practice of Islam. The two villages of Madanpur and Chishti (pseudonyms) are described. The changing dynamics of paddy cultivation and the challenges of the Green Revolution are introduced, as are the basic programs of land reform undertaken by communist governments. The story of huge electoral change from near-complete dominance of the communist parties of the Left Front from 1977 to their rout by Trinamool Congress in 2013 thirty four years later is outlined. The particular story of Islam, the origin of the elite Syeds from an Iranian ancestor, and present-day dynamics with reformist Islam are presented. Charles Taylor’s idea of “social imaginaries”—a key concept in the book—is discussed here.


Author(s):  
Vera Borisovna Tikhonova

The interdisciplinary approach that takes into account various points of view allows revealing the representations of honor in mentality of the Russian landowners of the XVII century. These representations are analyzed both in the context of national mentality of the XVII century overall, and within the privileged class. The article examines different meanings of honor typical to Russia of the XVII century: ancestral, official, corporate, spiritual, as well as assumptions on the presence of personal honor. Plausible mental representations of the honor of county landowners of the XVII century are viewed from the social, legal, spiritual, moral, and military-professional perspectives. The author goes along with the concepts that attribute honor to the fundamental concepts of national mentality of the XVII century. There are several meanings of honor: the medieval ideal of honor as virtue prevalent in Moscow society, honor of the rank, although the complete dominance of the latter in mentality of the XVII century seems exaggerated. The entire privileged class of the Russian society attached great importance to the meaning of “homeland”, while the provincial landowners valued the length of service. The author believes that the idea of syncretism of honor expressed by the scholars about Middle Ages also pertains to the Moscow period. The honor of noblemen and children of court nobility on the ancestral, corporate and personal levels was an achievement based on “accumulative” principle. The resentment of duels by the Russian privileged ranks of the XVII century, who defended their honor in a lawful manner, deserves particular attention. The representations of honor of the county landowners was stressed by mass poverty and closeness to the lower social classes, which encouraged to stay in the privileged environment. This was accompanied by continuous struggle for retaining paternal, official, corporate, personal honor.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sara E. Miller ◽  
Michael J. Sheehan

AbstractDeleterious variants are selected against but can linger in populations at low frequencies for long periods of time, decreasing fitness and contributing to disease burden in humans and other species. Deleterious variants occur at low frequency but distinguishing deleterious variants from low frequency neutral variation is challenging based on population genetics data. As a result, we have little sense of the number and identity of deleterious variants in wild populations. For haplodiploid species, it has been hypothesized that deleterious alleles will be directly exposed to selection in haploid males, but selection can be masked in diploid females due to partial or complete dominance, resulting in more efficient purging of deleterious mutations in males. Therefore, comparisons of the differences between haploid and diploid genomes from the same population may be a useful method for inferring rare deleterious variants. This study provides the first formal test of this hypothesis. Using wild populations of Northern paper wasps (Polistes fuscatus), we find that males have fewer overall variants, and specifically fewer missense and nonsense variants, than females from the same population. Allele frequency differences are especially pronounced for rare missense and nonsense mutations and these differences lead to a lower genetic load in males than females. Based on these data we estimate that a large number of highly deleterious mutations are segregating in the paper wasp population. Stronger selection against deleterious alleles in haploid males may have implications for adaptation in other haplodiploid insects and provides evidence that wild populations harbor abundant deleterious variants.


Author(s):  
Dmitri Dolzhenko ◽  
Sergei Shevchenko

The aim of the study was to investigate the systems of genetic control of the trait “grain weight per main spike” in spring barley in the system of diallel crosses to optimize the breeding process for yield. Six varieties of barley were used as parental forms: Condor and Omskiy naked 1 (hulless), Margret, Lun, Nutans 553, and Anna (hulled). Crosses according to the full diallelic scheme were performed in 2008 and 2009. Field experiments were carried out in the forest-steppe of Penza region in 2009 and 2010 with contrasting hydrothermal regimes. In most hybrid populations, the grain weight per spike was inherited according to the type of overdominance and complete dominance of the parent with a high value of the trait. The analysis of the combining ability by B.Griffing showed that both additive and non-additive effects were present in the control of the trait; their balance varied by years and genotypes. The correlation coefficients between the general combining ability (GCA) and the degree of the trait in parental varieties (r=0.76...0.96) indicate that the selection of pairs for crosses can be carried out on the basis of high values of grain weight per spike, especially in a dry year. Genetic analysis by B.Hayman showed the prevalence of the effects of overdominance in the control of the trait; in 2009, complementary epistasis was also registered. Overdominance and non-additive effects in the control of a trait complicates selection in early generations, which is confirmed by the differences between the values of heritability coefficients in the broad sense (H2=0.79...0.94) and in the narrow sense (h2=0.24...0.59). The largest number of dominant genes controlling the grain weight per spike was found in Margret in both years of research and Anna in the dry year. These varieties are also distinguished for the consistently positive effects of GCA and are recommended as donors of the trait for breeding


Author(s):  
С.В. Тетюхин ◽  
М.В. Павская

Целью исследования являлось изучение естественного лесовозобновления в условиях средней тайги таежной лесорастительной зоны РФ на основе массовых данных лесоустройства, в которых отражена информация о ходе естественного лесовозобновления. Поставленная задача была решена с помощью электронной повыдельной базы данных объекта исследования, включающая в себя информацию, необходимую для общей оценки подроста хозяйственно ценных пород. Оценка естественного лесовозобновления была проведена по шкале оценки возобновления. Из общей электронной базы были отобраны все выделы естественного происхождения в возрасте преобладающей породы основного яруса старше 4-го класса возраста, т. е. хвойные старше 80 лет и мягколиственные старше 40 лет. Общий объем выборки составил 6533 выдела площадью 16814,2 га. В целом на 32,7% площади таксационных выделов, наблюдается полное отсутствие подроста хозяйственно ценных пород. Структура породного состава подроста характеризуется практически полным доминированием елового подроста. Оптимальные условия для естественного лесовозобновления ели создаются в черничниках (встречаемость 99,8%) и в кисличниках – встречаемость 98,4%. Максимальный процент подроста с оценкой хорошо по преобладающей на выделе древесной породе (35% от всех выделов с подростом) оказался в сосняках кисличного типа леса в свежих суборях. The aim of the study was to study natural reforestation in the middle taiga of the taiga forest zone of the Russian Federation on the basis of mass forest management data, which reflects information about the progress of preliminary reforestation. The task was solved with the help of an electronic database of the research object, which includes the information necessary for the overall assessment of the undergrowth of economically valuable breeds. The assessment of natural reforestation was carried out on the basis of the renewal assessment scale. From the general electronic database of data, all natural-origin selections were selected at the age of the predominant breed of the main tier older than the 4th age class, i.e. coniferous over 80 years old and softleaved over 40 years old. The total sample size was 6,533 allotments with an area of 16,814. 2 hectares. In general, on 32.7% of the area of taxation allotments, there is a complete absence of undergrowth of economically valuable breeds. The structure of the breed composition of the undergrowth is characterized by almost complete dominance of spruce undergrowth. Optimal conditions for the natural reforestation of spruce are created in blueberry forests (99.8% occurrence) and in acid forests-98.4% occurrence. The maximum percentage of undergrowth with a rating of good for the wood species prevailing in the allotment (35% of all allotments with the adolescent) was found in the pine forests of the acidic forest type in fresh sub-forests.


Viruses ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (6) ◽  
pp. 969
Author(s):  
Isobel Grindrod ◽  
Jessica L. Kevill ◽  
Ethel M. Villalobos ◽  
Declan C. Schroeder ◽  
Stephen John Martin

The combination of Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Varroa destructor is arguably one of the greatest threats currently facing western honey bees, Apis mellifera. Varroa’s association with DWV has decreased viral diversity and increased loads of DWV within honey bee populations. Nowhere has this been better studied than in Hawaii, where the arrival of Varroa progressively led to the dominance of the single master variant (DWV-A) on both mite-infested Hawaiian Islands of Oahu and Big Island. Now, exactly 10 years following the original study, we find that the DWV population has changed once again, with variants containing the RdRp coding sequence pertaining to the master variant B beginning to co-dominate alongside variants with the DWV-A RdRp sequence on the mite-infested islands of Oahu and Big Island. In speculation, based on other studies, it appears this could represent a stage in the journey towards the complete dominance of DWV-B, a variant that appears better adapted to be transmitted within honey bee colonies.


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